World Population Awareness

I

How to Attain Population Sustainability



   2005

Before, we didn't know how to control pregnancy, we didn't have the education, and people in the area were having nine or ten children. We have 18 families and no one has more than three children. The health of the children and mothers has improved, and so has the spacing of babies. Everyone understands the importance of family planning now. Vincente Jarrin and Maria Juana Jarrin Malca, Husband and Wife Family Planning Promoters in Pasquazo Zambrano, Ecuador doclink

   Carl Haub - Population Reference Bureau

It took the US 200 years to go from 7 babies per family to two. "Bangladesh has done that in 20. Iran has more than halved its fertility rate in a decade." doclink

   2005

Before, we didn't know how to control pregnancy, we didn't have the education, and people in the area were having nine or ten children. We have 18 families and no one has more than three children. The health of the children and mothers has improved, and so has the spacing of babies. Everyone understands the importance of family planning now. Vincente Jarrin and Maria Juana Jarrin Malca, Husband and Wife Family Planning Promoters in Pasquazo Zambrano, Ecuador doclink

The Two Parts of Sustainability Are Consumption and Population

  

The world could possibly reduce consumption down to a very basic level, but if population keeps growing, eventually that will not be enough. Even today many are living on a sub-sustainable level, due in part to an uneven distribution of resources, but also because, in many regions, population has outgrown essential resources for that region.

When people feel threatened by a hand-to-mouth existence, they are more likely to look towards less-than democratic ways to reduce population, especially if they have the foresight to realize that population growth is like a run-away train, very difficult to slow and stop.

However, more and more evidence is showing that the methods that work the best towards reducing population growth, are the methods established by the principles of the Cairo Conference in 1994 (United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) September 1994, Cairo, Egypt), which include: a. Empowering women and girls in the economic, political, and social arenas; b. Removing gender disparities in education; c. Integrating family planning with related efforts to improve maternal and child health; and d. Removal of 'target' family sizes. doclink

Population Progress

   October 6, 2004, Boston Globe

A United Nations report says poverty perpetuates and is exacerbated by poor maternal health, gender discrimination, and lack of access to birth control. This holistic view has helped slow the increase in world population. The average family has declined from six children in 1960 to around three today. The world's population is expected to grow by 39% over the next 45 years and births in the 50 poorest nations are estimated to rise by 228%. Education and improved health for women and access to contraception are vital. Smaller families are healthier families and improve the prospects of each generation. 201 million couples do not have access to contraception and if they could practice family planning, 22 million abortions, 142,000 pregnancy-related deaths, and 1.4 million infant deaths each year could be prevented. Since 1994 more women have access to education and other rights, and more early-marriage traditions are being opposed. Most countries have laws prohibiting violence against women, female genital mutilation, and other violations of human rights. doclink

End to Population Growth: Why Family Planning is Key to a Sustainable Future

   April 13, 2011, The Solutions Journal

by Robert Engelman ... We are far from a world in which all births result from intended pregnancies. Surveys show that approximately 40% of pregnancies are unintended in developing countries, and 47% in developed ones.

Over 20% of births worldwide result from pregnancies women did not wish to occur.

It is estimated that 215 million women in developing countries are sexually active, but don't want to become pregnant; in other words, they have an unmet need for family planning. For various reasons they are not using contraception.

If all births resulted from women actively intending to conceive, fertility would immediately fall slightly below the replacement level; world population would peak within a few decades and subsequently decline.

It is not expensive to help all women to be in fully control of the timing and frequency of their childbearing. The key obstacles are religious, cultural, and political opposition to contraception or the possibility of population decline.

More research and a public better educated about sexuality and reproduction could engender a global social movement that would make possible a world of intended pregnancies and births. doclink

The Best Way to Attain Population Sustainability

dl516 FOUND 008124 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008126 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`B ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 032745 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 032546 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 031238 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 029792 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 029552 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 029208 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 029345 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 028978 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 028409 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 028313 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 027635 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_bestWay`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 027629 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 027190 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 027085 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 027083 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 026596 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M`;NewsDigest_pointsSolutions`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 026579 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 026556 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 026532 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 026494 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 026039 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhyPopMatters_item`M`;WhatWorks_bestWay`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 025988 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 024409 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 024364 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 023107 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 022982 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 019365 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 019379 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 019368 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 014018 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 012967 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 010963 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`V;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 005582 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 009461 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 007674 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008127 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008128 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008129 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008130 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008131 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008132 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008133 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008138 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008141 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008142 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008143 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 031255 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_Sustainability`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay
dl516 FOUND 008180 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_bestWay ..sectsubs WhatWorks_bestWay`Y ..listsectsub WhatWorks_bestWay

   Amy Coen, PAI, Vanity Fair LTE

What could we, should we actually do about human population growth? Can population trends be altered? If so, can they be altered without violating core human values about the worth of all human beings and the freedom of all to make decisions about their own childbearing? Does the idea of altering population trends lead inevitably to "population control," to walls erected to keep out immigrants, and to coercive policies on childbearing that punish poor women for environment problems that may be the fault of wealthy people living far away?

At the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, some 180 nations agreed with economist Amartya Sen that coercion has no place in any population program, whether it be a one-child policy, sterilization, forced marriage, forced childbearing, or forced sex. The Chinese, to their credit, are turning away from coercion and toward the approach that the United Nations Population Fund is the United Nations Population Fund is demonstrating, and groups such as Population Action International are advocating worldwide. This more democratic and comprehensive approach champions women's education and access to information and to reproductive-health to reproductive-health care. That care ideally includes not only contraceptives but also pre-natal and post-natal care, professional birth attendants, nutritional and child-care counseling, as well as H.I.V./AIDS prevention. doclink

Meeting the Cairo Challenge

   Family Care International

Policies based on population control are moving towards more people- oriented, reproductive health approaches. Although it takes time for policy and legal changes to benefit women and men at the community and household levels, such changes are a critical first step. Policies and laws are needed to hold health services courts, schools, and other institutions, as well as communities and families, accountable. As such, the policy and legal changes made since 1994 based on human rights, equity, and meeting people's needs--are central to fullfiling the Cairo Mandate. doclink

Empower Women for the Health of the Planet

   June 8, 2015, New York Times   By: Carmen Barroso

We cannot deny that environmental and reproductive justice are intertwined, or that reproductive justice has influence on the quality of life of women and families and on the sustainable health of the entire planet.

Providing family planning for those who want it could result in up to 29% of needed reductions in carbon emissions, scientists say. Voluntary family planning would also help our planet be more sustainable. However 225 million women lack access to modern methods of contraception.

Empowering women and promoting their right to choose what is best for them and their families is also one of the most effective pathways to reduce unintended pregnancies and improve maternal and child health. Providing access to [and information about] contraception would reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies by 70%, according to the Guttmacher Institute.

A woman who is able to decide if and when to have children and how many, tends to go further in school, is empowered as a decision-maker in her household and is more adaptable and resilient during times of hardship. She is more likely to invest money back into her family, her family is more likely to prosper and her community and our planet thrive because of it.

Investments in these sexual and reproductive health services have been slow in coming from the international community, even though the cost would be low. For example, in Latin America and the Caribbean only $31 per year would provide a woman with these needed services.

Upholding the human rights of women is essential in balancing both fears of so-called overpopulation and underpopulation. doclink

Population + Solutions

   April 1, 2015, Global Population Speakout (GPSO)

Note: this is a teaser only. Please click on the link in the headline to read the entire set of articles.

There is good news -- in the 21st century, solutions to the population challenge are many. They are progressive. They strengthen human rights and improve human health. They are things we should be doing anyway. And they contribute toward solving some of today's most pressing social and environmental challenges.

Improving the Stats of Women and Girls

How well a society treats its women is one of the strongest indicators of the success and health of that society. Discrimination against women and girls occurs in many forms - through gender-based violence, economic discrimination, reproductive health inequities, and harmful traditional practices ....

Primary and Secondary Education

Education is not only an obvious human right - but it is also an important demographic variable, influencing global population growth trajectories. There is a strong correlation between fertility decline, education, and socioeconomic development. Girls' secondary education is especially important because, among other things, ....

Family Planning Information and Services

Family planning, one of the greatest public health achievements in human history, allows individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. It protects the health of the mother and the outcome of .....

Population, Health and Environment Programs

Population, Health, and Environment (PHE) programs offer an integrated approach to solving human development and conservation challenges through improving access to health services - including family planning and reproductive health - while also helping people improve livelihoods, manage natural resources, and conserve the critical ...

Entertainment-Education

Entertainment-education (EE) is any form of communication that is designed to entertain and educate audiences simultaneously. Entertainment-education has existed for thousands of years in the form of parables and fables that promote social change. Modern forms of entertainment-education include television productions, radio soap-operas, and ....

Public Discourse, Campaigning, & Activism

"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has." So said Margaret Mead, a leading feminist whom Time magazine once named "Mother of the World." When it comes to the issue .... doclink

10 Reasons Why Investing in Women and Girls is So Vital

   July 9, 2014, Global Citizen   By: Leticia Pfeffer

70% of the 1 billion poorest people are female. These women are disproportionately affected by discrimination, violence, and exploitation. Too many are deprived the opportunity to an education and to basic health care services.

The great news is that investing in girls and women makes economic sense. If the world educated, empowered, and kept all girls and women healthy, we would lessen extreme poverty and build healthier, wealthier, and more educated communities.

1. Studies show that women reinvest up to 90% of their incomes back into their families, compared to just 30-40% by men. Mothers provide better nutrition and health care and spend more on their children. Investing in women and girls creates long-term social and economic benefits for all individuals, their communities, and the world as a whole.

2. 31 million girls in the world don't have the opportunity to pursue an education. Every day, they are taken out of school and forced to work or marry. One out of five girls in the developing world doesn't even complete the sixth grade.

Educated girls and women are healthier, have the skills to make choices over their own future and can lift themselves, their communities and their countries out of poverty. Even one more year in school makes a difference. A girl's income will increase by up to 25% every year she stays in school. If India enrolled 1% more girls in secondary school, the country's GDP would rise by $5.5 billion.

3. 222 million women today lack access to family planning services, information and contraception. If we doubled investment in family planning, we could reduce unintended pregnancies by 68%; avert newborn deaths by 35%; reduce unsafe abortions by 70%.

For every dollar spent on family planning, governments can save up to 6 dollars on health, housing, water and other public services. Family planning enables millions of girls to stay in school, saves lives and has the capacity to lift entire communities out of poverty.

4. Each year, an estimated 16 million girls aged 15-19 give birth. Only 35% of unmarried girls and women in developing countries use a modern method of contraception -- so most teen pregnancies are unplanned. Girls who become pregnant are forced to leave school and are prone to high health risks, such as HIV, obstetric fistula, and complications during pregnancy. The number one cause of death for girls is childbirth.

By delaying teen pregnancies, girls are able to stay in school, invest in their futures and have healthier children when they are ready. If all young girls completed primary school, we could save 900,000 of their children each year. And if those girls got a secondary education, we could save three million lives.

5. In a given year, approximately 300,000 women die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal mortality is much higher in poor communities and rural areas. 99% of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries.

When women have access to health services and information by skilled health professionals during pregnancy and childbirth, this can make the difference between life and death -- for the lives of women and their newborn babies.

6. 14 million girls are married before the age of 18 every year. In the developing world, poverty and traditional gender roles magnify this problem. 1 in 7 girls is married before age 15, and some child brides are married as young as 9 years old.

When girls have the opportunity to complete their education through secondary school, they are up to six times less likely to be married as children than girls with little or no education. Educated girls are also less likely to have unintended pregnancies as teenagers.

7. Women work two-thirds of the world's working hours, produce half of the world's food, but earn only 10% of the world's income and own less than one percent of the world's property. On average, women earn half of what men earn.

In order to achieve gender equality, women and men must have equal employment opportunities and receive equal pay.

8. Women are a central part of the solution to ending hunger and poverty. Yet, female farmers face numerous constraints: they own less land, cultivate smaller plots of land, and have a harder time accessing credit.

If we want to reduce poverty and end hunger, we must give women access to the resources they need for agricultural production and participation. This could: Increase farm yields by 20-30%; increase agricultural output by 4%; and reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 150 million

9. 1 in 3 women and girls worldwide, one billion, will experience violence such as torture, rape, sexual trafficking, honor killings, beatings during pregnancy and domestic violence in their lifetime.

Violence is a major cause of poverty. It prevents women from pursuing an education, working, or earning the income they need to lift their families out of poverty.

10. 100 to 140 million girls and women around the world have undergone genital mutilation -- including 6.5 million in Western countries. This practice continues to be concentrated in Africa, where 90 million African women and girls have been victims. It is mostly carried out on young girls under 15, often with the consent of mothers, in conditions that lead to lifelong pain, infection and premature death. doclink

Articles From the Last Day of ICFP 2013 Conference in Addis Ababa

   November 20, 2013, Degrees Live

This is a series of articles and videos from the November 2013 International Conference on Family Planning , including:

Girls' Globe Reports Live from ICFP: Coverage Archive - http://live.fhi360.org/category/icfp2013/#sthash.r5F3HcX1.dpuf

CFP 2013 Reflections: Maternal & Child Health, Family Planning... and NTDs http://live.fhi360.org/category/icfp2013/#sthash.r5F3HcX1.dpuf

Video: The Importance of Women Leaders in Family Planning - Ellen Starbird, USAID

Connected Health Workers Key to Improved Healthcare

Day Two of the ICFP and the Energy around Youth is Electric

Latin America's Contraception Crisis

Inspired by youth involvement: Kate Gilmore, UNFPA

ICFPLive Crowdblog: Wednesday Plenary - Achieving Equity through Women in Leadership

Family planning leads to health, education and income

Video: The Importance of Involving Youth in Family Planning - Isaiah Olowabi

The Challenge Ahead: Initiating a Demographic Dividend doclink

We Must Always Monitor Population Growth. Always

   October 8, 2013, World Outline

Ravi Prasad disputes the June 2013 "medium-variant projections" (MVP) of the Population Division of the United Nations' Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The UN offers these figures to the media as their most likely population forecast. Companies and governments often use the country-specific MVP breakdowns in planning. For example, where should a water purification company build plants to meet expected demand in thirty years, or what allocation of public funds should be set aside for pension provision given the size of the population in 2040. These projections should be based on realistic estimates of population growth and size. Ravi fears that, especially for certain developing nations, the MVP projections underestimate what will occur.

The MVPs project that world population will reach 9.6 billion by 2050 and 10.9 billion by 2100. These estimates assume that global fertility rates will plummet and converge to a rate of 1.85, with most nations reaching that level by 2050 and the rest by 2100. The UN Population Division derives these figures by basing the pace of future fertility decline on the historical experience of countries that underwent major fertility rate reductions after 1950. The MVP actually shows what is possible if poor nations achieve reductions in childbearing resembling those of more advanced nations. To achieve the MVPs rates, nations would need to produce about 20 billion fewer people by 2100 than current rates would produce.

Most future population growth will occur in the least developed countries (LDCs). Between 2013 and 2100, the population of 35 mostly LDC countries is expected to triple or more. Among them, the populations of Burundi, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia are projected to increase by at least five-fold by 2100. Of the 3.7 billion additional people anticipated, 2 billion will originate from LDCs - highlighting their above-average fertility rates. To meet the MVPs, the largest falls in fertility must occur in these regions. For example, in Mali, fertility must fall from 6.86 to 2.24 between now and 2100. The UN Population Division acknowledges these challenges, and admits the rates rely on "expected actions" being taken. They define "expected action" as LDCs improving family planning and widening access to contraception. Yet these LDCs differ fundamentally from advanced nations and do not follow conventional historical experience. Professor Paul Collier's "The Bottom Billion" (which won the 2009 Estoril Global Issues Distinguished Book Prize), explains why these countries are 'trapped' and have not had the economic growth that permits them to follow in the footsteps of other nations.

One of the best known statistical relationships is that rich nations have lower birthrates than poor nations. For example, a country like Ethiopia, where the total fertility rate is 6.12 children per woman, is fifty-one times poorer than the United States, where the total fertility rate is 2.05. People offer a variety of explanations. For example, female empowerment helps reduce family size. Richer countries empower women through advanced legal systems (e.g. freedom of divorce), political systems (e.g. votes for women), social systems (e.g. contraception, childcare and education readily available) and economic systems (e.g. more employment opportunities for women). Another explanation argues that better healthcare in richer countries results in higher child survival rates, which lessens the need for having more children. Also, since retirees in richer countries can survive on their retirement incomes, they depend less on their children to support them in later life. Finally, since lower population growth means more capital per worker, workers can exploit productivity gains and drive economic growth.

All of these theories have merit, so if a nation is both rich and has a low population growth rate, the two advantages reinforce each other, and unless the cycle is broken, if a country is poor and has a high population growth rate, the two disadvantages reinforce each other. Breaking that cycle is difficult. Deep-rooted cycles prevent economic growth in LDCs, ranging from endemic diseases to endless conflicts. Yet, both growth and lower fertility rates require breaking those cycles. The UN Population Division assumes fertility will fall due to expected improvements in family planning, widening access to contraception, and educating about the dangers of unprotected sex. But these alone will not cut fertility rates. The UN must acknowledge the causal link between economic growth and fertility rates. It bases MVP forecasts on historical experience, but it fails to note that the historical experience the UN refers to, in nations where fertility rates fell since the 1950s, also saw an acceleration of economic growth rates.

The UN sees a lack of family planning usage, and explains it by a lack of supply. Yet, lack of usage is not necessarily indicative of lack of supply. Many LDC parents choose or feel forced to have more children either to support themselves on retirement or to counteract high child mortality (e.g. 20.9% in Chad) Also, in a war-torn country where sons die in conflict, people have more kids to offset their losses. Simply throwing condoms at LDCs to bring their fertility rates down has minimal impact where people choose to have large families. The driver for declines in LDC fertility rates is economic growth. doclink

Art says: Bangladesh demonstrates that birthrates can be lowered before a nation achieves economic success.

Karen Gaia says: I agree with Art. And also condoms are not 'thrown' at LDCs. Women must be empowered to have control over their own decisions and their bodies. Methods of birth control must be effective, accessible, available, and accompanied with advice from health care workers in integrated services. Often entire communities are involved in integrating conservation, health services, and family planning. The author assumes these things are not being done, but more and more is being done each year. Still .... funding is lacking for these programs.

Crowded Planet

A conversation with Alan Weisman
   September 2013, Orion Magazine

Human population has grown in the last hundred years 'at a rate rarely seen outside of a petri dish'. Alan Weisman wrote the World Without Us and, recently Countdown: Our Last, Best Hope for a Future on Earth? He spent two years traveling to twenty nations to investigate what the the world's recent population explosion means for our species as well as those we share the planet with.

Weisman was recently interviewed by Orion managing editor Andrew D. Blechman. His book addresses whether we'll be able to continue as a species, given all the things that we have been doing to our home.

The explosion began at the time of the Industrial Revolution when there were suddenly jobs in the cities rather than on farms. But they were crammed into tight quarters, and diseases ran rampant, so doctors learned about dealing with diseases. Suddenly, people were living longer, and fewer infants were dying.

Before that women would have seven or eight kids, but only two survived, on average. Two surviving is replacement rate where people have essentially replaced themselves, and population remains stable.

Then in 1930, when we were at 2 billion, we discovered how to pull nitrogen out of the air artificially and we were able to double the food supply. Today we've grown to 7 billion. 40- 50% of us would not be alive without artificial nitrogen fertilizer.

If you overfeed city pigeons, they have more babies and the population starts maxing out, whereas if you don't overfeed them, the population keeps itself in check. Too much food expands a population beyond its resource base, and then it crashes. And this is "not going to be very pretty."

"Some argue that population is in fact self-correcting, and that the correction is already underway."

Is there an answer to the question "How many people can fit on the planet before we set in motion changes that will threaten the future of life as we know it"? "We're all part of a big experiment to see how many of us can live on this planet without doing something to it that is going to destabilize it so much that our own future is in jeopardy," Weisman said.

"Should we take the responsibility to try to manage population decline gracefully, and possibly speed it up? We can do it humanely if we decide to manage it rather than let nature take its course."

It is not just the large number of people, it is also the amount that we consume that matters. The more consumers there are, consuming too much, the more consumption.

Paul Ehrlich said that there's no condom for consumption. "By the time we change human nature enough so that people consume a lot less, I think the earth will be trashed in the meantime."

"There's also no question that the most overpopulated country on earth is actually the United States, because we consume at such a ferocious rate. We may not be as numerous as China or as India, but our total impact is huge."

When Weisman was in the African country Niger, which has the highest fertilty rate in the world, people would talk about all the trees that had been cut down for firewood. This changed their climate so that there's less rain now. They also graze many more animals, creating more changes. "They're now in chronic drought. In every village, hundreds of children had died".

Eventually people in Niger and other countries will realize - if they haven't already - that "they don't have the luxury of continuing life as they used to live it, where men had multiple wives and wives had many children". By educating people, especially women, "they start to put these things together". "Education is the best contraceptive of all" because educated women adopt a family-planning mentality.

When you educate women, and give them rights equal to "anybody else's on this planet", they usually "choose to have fewer children, because they have another way to contribute to society that would be difficult if they had seven kids to care for".

Whereever you have educated women, society is more livable. "All we have to do is offer fair, equal opportunity to half the human race, the female half".

Weisman says people can adjust to smaller families, even one-child families. When in China he found out that, while these single children missed having siblings, but they said, "On the other hand, our cousins have become our siblings. Sometimes our best friends have. We've reinvented the family."

Of China's one-child policy he said "while a draconian edict may have worked in one place, it's not going to work everywhere".

We need to make contraception "very attractive to people, and let them manage their own population"". "There are a couple of Muslim nations that" ... " have brought their populations down to replacement levels without draconian controls from above, without any edicts". Iran got down to replacement rate a year faster than China, and it was completely voluntary. The ayatollah Khamenei, "issued a fatwa saying there was nothing in the Qur'an against having an operation if you felt that you had enough children that you could take care of. Everything from condoms through pills, injections, tubal ligations, vasectomies, IUDs-everything was free, and everything was available in the farthest reaches of the country". The only thing that was obligatory was premarital counseling. "They would talk about things to get you prepared for getting married, including what it costs to have a child, to raise a child, to educate a child".

Of catholicism, he said the Catholic Church is unique in its adamant opposition to birth control except for the rhythm method. The Vatican is populated by "just one-thousand people, virtually all of them men. They're making these rules that many Catholics outside its walls are paying no attention to. Italy and Spain, for example, have two of the lowest birth rates on the planet".

In Niger an iman showed him in the Qur'an where "Muhammad says that each child is entitled to two years of mother's milk," which was interpreted as an admonition to carefully space births. Another imam says that children are a gift from God and you can't turn down gifts from God, so he's even against birth spacing.

While many Evangelical churches have been an anti-abortion, even anti-contraception, one Evangelical leader "absolutely supports contraception and campaigns hard for it".

Every four to 4.5 days, there's a million more of us on the planet. That doesn't sound sustainable.

In Uganda, in order to preserve the wildlife, as well as the tourist-related income for the people who live in these areas, wildlife ecologists are trying to convince residents to have fewer children. In the Philippines, ecologists are convincing people to have fewer children to prevent them from running out of fish.

One the other hand, in the European democracies, their birthrates are so low that they've resorted to paying their citizens to have children. But we've always had room to expand. Now China has knocked down more and more forests, until they lost all their flood control.

"For an economy to keep growing, you have to have growing populations, because you need more laborers to produce more products, and then you need more consumers for those products".

We need to redefine prosperity in a way that doesn't involve perpetual growth.

The president of Uganda, who's convinced that his country's economic future is dependent on massive population growth is sorely mistaken. Look at Singapore with a very low birthrate and the highest per capita incomes of any country on earth.

On aging: there will be a generation or so of a bubble where they're going to have more older people, and then, as that generation dies off, the number of older people and younger people are going to balance out again. If we redirected our funds to "taking care of a generation of older people until our population evened out, we'd be a much better society".

How much the population grows rests on whether women on average have a half child more or a half child less. The projection of nearly 10 billion by 2050 assumes that all the family planning programs we have in place will remain in place. And that's dependent on a few donor countries, such as the United States. If the "last presidential election gone differently, the United States may well have withdrawn a great deal of its support for family planning programs all over the world".

If family planning loses funding, "a half a child more per fertile woman means that by the end of the century we're going to increase to 16 billion people. A half a child less per woman means that we're going to be back down to 6 billion really quickly".

"Nearly a quarter of a billion women who might use contraception don't have access to it. However, it would only take about $8-9 billion a year to ensure that everybody did". That's not a lot of money. doclink

Karen Gaia says: Singapore, South Korea, Macau, and Hong Kong all have lower fertility rates than China, yet they had no policy on number of children.

On education and family planning, health is also a very important factor. If a woman does not have a health care worker she can trust, she will not have enough to go on to help her to decide to start using contraception. Health care is usually combined with birth spacing for a very compelling reason to use contraception.

On aging: more emphasis should be put on our children's and grandchildren's future, and their education, health, well-being. They are the ones who will have to get through the bad times and they need to be well-equipped.

End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, 1994

dl516 FOUND 008144 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs WhatWorks_Cairo`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 008146 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs WhatWorks_Cairo`B ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 032567 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 030551 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 029366 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_TargetsIncentives`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 028613 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 028119 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M`;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 027404 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 027370 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_Cairo`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 027359 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_Cairo`A`;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 026287 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_Cairo`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 026203 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_Cairo`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 024726 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs FundingPolitics_Cairo`A;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 024481 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 024271 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs WhatWorks_Cairo`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 024241 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs WhatWorks_Cairo`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 024155 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs WhatWorks_Cairo`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 021700 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 022160 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 021743 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 021360 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 020125 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 019334 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 019511 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 016216 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 013684 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 013166 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 013121 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 012369 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhyPopMatters_item`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 011855 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 011815 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 010172 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 009988 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 008145 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo
dl516 FOUND 008272 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_Cairo ..sectsubs WhatWorks_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_Cairo

The Cairo Program of Action

  

Acknowledges the complex personal and social contexts within which decisions about childbearing are made. It separates the problem of unwanted fertility, which can be addressed by access to family planning services, from other causes of population growth, including the desire for large families. Calls for other social investments -- such as the education of girls and the reduction of infant mortality -- to help make small families the norm.

  • Endorses a reproductive health approach to family planning.
  • Recognizes the central role of gender relations, with a link between high fertility and the low status of women, and offers strategies to empower women through access to education, resources and opportunity.
  • Addresses the harmful effects of northern consumption patterns, drawing the connection between consumption, population growth and environmentaldegradation.
  • Strikes a historic compromise on abortion. While declaring that "in no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning," the document asks governments to address unsafe abortion as a major public health concern. It also asks governments to ensure that abortion services are safe when they are not against the law, to provide reliable and compassionate counseling for all women who have unwanted pregnancies and to provide humane care for all women who suffer the consequences of unsafe abortion.
  • Stands on solid ethical ground. Coercion of all is rejected. The means it proposes to slow population growth are all desirable ends in themselves. It offers strategies to narrow the gaps between rich and poor, and between men and women.
  • doclink

    The United Nations Population Conference

       1994

    It took 40 years to build consensus.

    1954 - The Club of Rome

    1960 - USAID family planning services in the developing countries increases contraceptive prevalence from 14% in 1965 to 57% today. "Population control" sometimes used.

    1974 - Bucharest UN World Population Conference. Industrial countries wanted to control population growth, while developing nations said that "development is the best contraceptive."

    1984 - Mexico City U.N. Conference on Population becamed emeshed in U.S. debates over abortion and contraception.

    1994 - Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)- characterized by an extraordinary degree of international cooperation and consensus, by improving health, education, and access to opportunity doclink

    World's Population Projected to Grow From 7.3 Billion in 2015 to 8.4 Billion in 2030

       April 9, 2015, Population Media Center   By: Joe Bish

    The United Nation's Commission on Population and Development held its 48th annual session in early April at the UN Headquarters in New York City. Here are extracts of statements made during the session having to do with population.

    UN Secretary-General's message to the Commission on Population and Development (see http://un.org.au/2015/04/14/un-secretary-generals-message-to-the-commission-on-population-and-development/ ):

    "You meet as the international community strives this year to forge a set of sustainable goals and a meaningful new universal climate agreement. These twin priorities will be influenced by the profound demographic shifts taking place in our world, especially those related to youth, the elderly, urbanization and migration."

    "Our world now has the largest generation of young people in history. Countries experiencing a 'youth bulge' can reap a demographic dividend by optimizing conditions for youth to thrive. This requires enhancing education for both girls and boys, ensuring access to sexual and reproductive health care, and creating more decent jobs."

    "Workforces are shrinking and populations are greying."

    "Already more than half of the world's population lives in cities, and that proportion will grow over the next 15 years, adding urgency to efforts to optimize the benefits of urbanization and overcome its challenges."

    "Far too many migrants suffer from exploitation, discrimination and xenophobia. Addressing these violations of their rights will empower migrants to increase their contributions to development in both countries of origin and destination."

    "The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action as well as the 2014 operational review underscored the centrality of the rights and worth of every individual. We must be guided by this vision as we aim to help people meet their needs while protecting the environment for generations to come."

    Additional Reporting on Commission on Population and Development, Forty-eighth Session

    See: http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/pop1036.doc.htm

    Babatunde Osotimehin, Executive Director, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), said that, as a post-2015 development agenda was designed, the Commission on Population and Development, by integrating population issues into sustainable development, could turn its timeless principles and commitments into reality. Investments in the rights and well-being of adolescents and youth, now and throughout their lives, would unleash a demographic dividend of inclusive, sustainable economic growth in many countries. Young people, especially adolescent girls, must be empowered to make informed decisions to have control over their bodies and to stay healthy.

    It was also important to reach young people early in life to foster positive life-long health behaviour. Investing in the health, education and employment of young people today was the best investment to improve the lives of older persons tomorrow. ... It was imperative to integrate population issues into development, as there could be no sustainable development without people, he said, stressing that "we cannot afford to wait, the time is now".

    John Wilmoth, Director, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, said that, in Cairo, in 1994, the world had acknowledged the importance of the population dimension, but had also cautioned against efforts to manipulate aggregate trends, out of concern that such policies risked violating individual human rights.

    Continued rapid population growth would make it more difficult for some countries to improve health, provide adequate housing, achieve universal education, and provide adequate job opportunities over the next 15 years.

    The lesson of Cairo was that the collective concerns about current or future population trends should never become a justification for violating the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals. Population trends mattered for all three pillars of sustainable development..

    Barney Cohen, Assistant Director, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, introducing the report of the Secretary-General entitled "Integrating Population Issues into Sustainable Development, Including in the Post-2015 Development Agenda", said the world's population was projected to grow from 7.3 billion in 2015 to 8.4 billion in 2030, roughly equivalent to adding approximately 73 million people every year. By 2030, the global economy would need to support a population that was approximately 15% larger than it was today. In addition, while countries will experience different rates of growth, globally, 2 billion babies would be born over the next 15 years. If the world was to achieve the new sustainable development goals and leave no one behind, then every one of those new-born children, as well as their mothers, should have access to high-quality health services throughout all phases of life. In addition, all children should be able to attend school, and no child should have to grow up malnourished or live in extreme poverty.

    Over the next 15 years, he continued, the world would also need to prepare for the 1.9 billion young people who would turn 15, which was a 7% increase globally over the previous 15-year period. Underscoring that young people could be an important vehicle for economic development and social change, he said there must be greater investment in secondary and tertiary education, youth-friendly health services, and opportunities for young people in the labor market.

    He said that population projections also suggested that the number of women of reproductive age would increase globally by 9%, and in Africa, by 45% over the next 15 years. Thus, it was important to advance gender equality, ensure that women had a voice in the political process and were given the knowledge and tools to decide on the number and timing of their children. doclink

    Assessing Progress for Populations Worldwide

       April 3, 2014, United Nations

    Almost on the 20-year anniversary of the largest intergovernmental conference on population and development ever held -- the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo in 1994, the meeting of the 47th session of the Commission on Population and Development will be held.

    In advance of that meeting, John Wilmoth, Director of UN DESA's Population Division, spoke about how the heart of what the Cairo conference was all about individuals and their rights and needs, and addressing those issues first and foremost.

    Cairo helped galvanize action that brought major improvements in the well-being of people around the world. In 2013 over 90% of governments provided either direct or indirect support for family planning programs. Life expectancy has increased from 65 years in the period 1990-1995 to 70 years in the period 2010-2015.

    At the upcoming April session, representatives and experts from a large number of UN Member States and NGOs will meet in New York to assess the status of implementation of the Programme of Action, adopted by 179 governments in 1994.

    Wilmoth said there was more to be done: continuing to improve life expectancy, reduce fertility, enhance access to education, and achieve gender equality.

    The world's population is expected to reach 8.1 billion in 2025 and 9.6 billion in 2050. In 1994 the world's population was growing at 1.5% a year, compared to only 1.2% in recent years.

    The combined population of the 49 least developed countries is projected to double by 2050. In contrast, in more than 40 other countries - many of them in Eastern Europe, East, South-East and Western Asia, other parts of Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean - the size of the population is expected to decline in the coming decades.

    Despite these advances, most countries will not achieve the ICPD Programme of Action target for life expectancy of 75 years (70 years for the countries with the highest mortality levels) by the target date of 2015. Worldwide, women live 4.5 years longer than men, a gap that has remained virtually unchanged since 1994. Similarly, the world as a whole will miss the Conference target of a 75% reduction in maternal mortality.

    The international community is increasingly recognizing the contribution of migration to global development. In 2013, the number of international migrants worldwide reached 232 million, up from 154 million in 1990. There are more people living outside their country of birth than ever before, and it is expected that the numbers will increase further.

    Lower fertility combined with higher life expectancy results in population ageing. Aging combined with rapid urbanization "creates challenges in terms of meeting the needs of the older population and also in managing the relationship between the generations as the working-age population inevitably has to provide a certain amount of financial and other forms of support for the older population," he said.

    The Commission will also be an important preparatory event for the special session of the General Assembly, which will take place on 22 September 2014 to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Cairo conference. doclink

    Voluntary Family Planning Programs That Respect, Protect, and Fulfill Human Rights

       September 12, 2013, Futures Group

    Key points:

    In the orward to the 2012 State of World Population report, "By Choice, Not by Chance", Babatunde Osotimehin, UNFPA reaffirmed the right of the individual to freely and responsibly decide how many children to have and when to have thme has been the guiding principle in sexual and reproductive health, including family planning.

    The foundation for voluntary and human rights-based family planning can be traced to the 1968 International Conference on Human Rights, which included in its proclamation that "parents have a basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children." This right was reaffirmend at three subsequent international population conferences in Bucharest in 1974, Mexico in 1984, and Cairo in 1994.

    The landmark International Conference on Population and Development, which took place in Cairo in 1994, affirmed that ...reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsible the number, spacing and timing of their children, and to have the information and means to do so; and the right to attain the highest standards of sexual and reproductive health. It also includes their right to make decisions concerning reproduction free of descrimination, coercion and violence, as expressed in human rights documents (UNFPA, 1994, Programme of Action para. 7.3)

    Amidst the positive response to FP2020 (London Family Planning Summit in July 2012), including a civil society declaration signed by more than 1,000 organizations worldwide, some civil society organizations expressed concerns that the numeric goal of reaching 120 million new users of contraception by 2020 could signal a retreat from the human rights centered approach that underscored the 1994 ICPD. Concern was also raised that the FP Summit goal could also lead to a focus on services for urban groups who may already have access to services, at the expense of marginalized women, men, and young people are are more costly to reach but who may face more financial, social, or other barriers preventing them from accessing such services.

    A focus on reaching more women with contraceptives will not negate the the broader reproductive health and rights focus of ICPD. instead, it will draw attention and resources to family planning, a key component of reproductive health that has received insufficient attention and resources for nearly two decades.

    The need for renewed attention to family planning has been highlighted, resources have been pledged, and political will is high, offering what Kingdon (1984) identified as a window of opportunity for transformational change. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require bringing together diverse stakeholders -- representing family planning, reproductive health, human rights, and public health to harness relevant approaches to programming and create the conditions for achieving the FP202 goal (120 million new voluntary family planning users) in ways that guarantee choice and respect, protect, an fulfill human rights.

    Few attempts have been made to link voluntarism and human rights into a comprehensive operational framework to guide family planning policies and programs.

    This conceptual framework was reviewed by more than 150 people from 25 countries through a series of in-person and web-based consultations and the World Health Organization (WHO) consulting on rights-based family planning held in April 2013. Ultimately, it is hoped that this effort and the resulting framework can contribute to the implementation of the FP2020 program.

    As rights violations related to reproductive health have tended to focus on some egregious cases - such as forced abortion in China, forced sterilizations in India, Peru, and more recently among HIV-positive women -- more subtle forms of rights violations have been missed. Some programs or providers pressure or coerce clients into using family planning methods they do not want, while others create barriers that prevent individuals from obtaining and using methods they desire.

    Programs that offer a limited choice of methods cannot really be said to offer a full choice.

    The principle of volunteerism has been integrated into all U.S. government assistance for family planning since 1968. USAID notes that its assistance is guided by the principles of voluntarism and informed choice:

    * People have the opportunity to choose voluntarily whether to use family planning or a specific family planning method.

    * Individuals have access to information on a wide variety of family planning choices, including the benefits and health risks of particular methods.

    * Clients are offered, either directly or through referral, a broad range of methods and services.

    * The voluntary and informed consent of any clients choosing sterilization is verified by a written consent document signed by the client.

    Follow the link in the headline to see the entire, very long paper. doclink

    UN to Hold Special Session in 2014 on Population

       February 21, 2013, Associated Press

    The UN General Assembly has decided to hold a special session on Sept. 22, 2014, on the anniversary of the 1994 Cairo population conference - when some 180 nations adopted a plan that focused on birth control, economic development and giving women more power over their lives - to assess implementation the 20 year-old plan to slow the global population explosion.

    The world's population has grown since the 1994 conference, from 5.7 billion to about 7 billion. The U.N.'s top population official, Babatunde Osotimehin recently said the world will add a billion people within a decade, further straining the planet's resources.

    Kenya's deputy U.N. ambassador Koki Muli said there will be no final document from the 2014 session, a move that will avoid contentious negotiations on issues such as reproductive rights for women, sex education, abortion and family planning.

    The Cairo conference changed the U.N. Population Fund's focus from numerical targets to promoting choices for individual women and men, and supporting economic development and education for girls. Underlying the shift was research showing that educated women have smaller families.

    At the heart of the 1994 action plan is a demand for equality of women through education, access to modern birth control, and the right to choose if and when to become pregnant. It also recognized that abortion is practiced around the world and should be treated as a major public health issue and indicated that affordable and acceptable family planning is central to achieving safe motherhood. doclink

    Task Force to Kick Start Cairo Population Goals

       October 12, 2012, IPS Inter Press Service   By: Becky Bergdahl

    In 1994 in Cairo, Egypt, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) instituted a Programme of Action which is the guiding document for the United Nations Population Fund, UNFPA.

    Recently, at the Ford Foundation in New York, a new 26-member high-level task force assembled to galvanise support behind the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD).

    Gita Sen is a professor of public policy at the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore, and has worked on population policies for 35 years. She is a member of the new task force, and attended the conference in Cairo in 1994.

    "I would not say that the goals have not been fulfilled, but that they have only been partially fulfilled," she said. "One thing that has definitely happened in those 18 years is that there is a language of sexual and reproductive rights, which was never there before." "This language has scared some people in governments, some very religious people, some social conservatives," she said.

    "They think that if women are empowered, if young people get autonomy and choice, they are going to lose out in terms of their ability to control them. Which is probably true, to some extent. But in the end it is for a better life for everybody."

    Sen said "The spread of evangelical conservatism in Africa is funded heavily from" the U.S. ..."It is funded by very rich people who are pouring their millions into very poor countries, in order to ensure that they turn their agenda away from sexual and reproductive rights, against gender equality. And with that much money pouring in it is hardly surprising that we have faced so much trouble as we do."

    Yet Sen maintains a positive attitude. "We are going to win this one. You can not keep young people and women back forever. This is not the dark ages," she concluded.

    200 million women worldwide still lack access to effective contraception, resulting in 80 million unintended pregnancies each year, with 40 million ending in unsafe abortions, many with life-threatening consequences. 800 women who carry out their pregnancies, wanted or unwanted, die every day in childbirth - 99% of them in developing countries.

    Ishita Chaudhry, a member of the new task force and the leader of the youth organisation TYPF in India, highlighted the importance of banning child marriage in order to achieve the ICPD goals.

    Child brides, girls married before their 18th birthday, run especially high risks of unwanted pregnancy and also of abuse. And there are currently over 60 million child brides worldwide.

    One in seven women experience domestic or sexual violence in their lifetime. Up to one in four women experience abuse during pregnancy.

    "Women's sexual and reproductive rights are at the heart of sustainable development," said Tarja Halonen, a former president of Finland and co-chair of the new high-level task force.

    "Pregnancy should be one of the happiest times in our life... Girls pay the price of taboos and double standards," she said. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: "179 nations at the 1994 Conference in Cairo endorsed the right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of one's children, and the right to a satisfying and safe sex life."

    Policymakers Recommit to Unfinished Agenda of Landmark International Consensus on Population and Development Adopted at 1994 Cairo Conference as 20-Year Marker Fast Approaches

       May 29, 2012, Planetwire.org

    In late May in Istanbul some 400 delegates, including more than 200 parliamentarians, discussed a course of action over the coming years to implement the ICPD Programme of Action by 2014 and beyond. They also considered ways to influence any new development framework to follow the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015.

    Congresswomen Carolyn Maloney and Jan Schakowsky from Chicago represented the United States at the parliamentarian conference.

    "ICPD is about human beings, respect, rights, and what we can do to ensure that every individual can make his or her own decisions," said Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin, Executive Director of UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.

    Delegates committed themselves to its unfinished Cairo agenda plan by unanimously adopting the Istanbul Declaration of Commitment. In it, and under the theme, Keeping Promises - Measuring Results, they determined to advocate for increased national and external funding for the entire implementation of the ICPD agenda in order to achieve access to sexual and reproductive health, including family planning. They committed to strive to "attain at least 10 per cent of national development budgets and development assistance budgets for population and reproductive health programmes." That includes HIV prevention and reproductive health commodities.

    They pledged to support policies that give special attention to the specific concerns and needs of young people by promoting and protecting their right to "access good quality education at all levels, health, sexual and reproductive services, including comprehensive sexuality education," and to adopt measures to prevent all types of exploitation and abuse against them.

    The conference followed four similar global conferences, in Bangkok in 2006, Strasbourg in 2004, Ottawa in 2002 and Addis Ababa in 2009. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Success Stories: Family Planning Works - Growth is Slowing!

    dl516 FOUND 033168 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 032246 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 031350 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 030611 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 029786 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 029048 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 028907 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 028379 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 028378 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 027538 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 026973 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 026687 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 026402 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 026321 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 026107 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_successStories`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    ***ERROR: Docid 025981 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 1
    dl516 FOUND 025765 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 025365 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 024434 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 024534 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 024531 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 024073 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 023518 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 022474 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_otherIdeas`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 022104 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;BirthControl_maleResponsibility`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 020998 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 021759 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 021997 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 022007 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 021784 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 021446 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 019987 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;Sustainability_CarryingCapacity`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 020044 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 020154 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 020019 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 019989 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 019601 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 019704 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 019772 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 019371 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 018260 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 018050 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 017968 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 017685 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 017506 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 017377 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 017127 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 017047 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 016877 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 015905 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;PopulationDeclineOlder_decline`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 015759 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 015807 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 015665 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 015462 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013057 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013514 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013132 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013357 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013370 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013277 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013431 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013334 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013126 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 013022 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 012776 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;India_progress`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 012711 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 012502 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 012458 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 012003 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;India_progress`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011928 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011868 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011818 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011835 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011624 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011474 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;PopulationDeclineOlder_decline`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011476 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011323 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011184 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011180 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 011130 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010954 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010939 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010536 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010496 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010302 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010417 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010317 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 010173 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 007624 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 009512 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 009521 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;FundingPolitics_MexicoCity`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 009472 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 009473 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 006546 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 007650 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 005429 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories;TeenPregnancy_USA;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 005020 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 004994 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 007007 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 007620 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 007631 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 007645 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 007760 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008147 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008148 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories ;;WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008150 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008151 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008152 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories `M;`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008153 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008154 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008155 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008157 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008158 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008159 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008160 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008161 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008162 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008164 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008165 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008166 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008167 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008168 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008169 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008170 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008171 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008172 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008173 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008174 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008175 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008176 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories ;`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008177 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008178 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008179 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories
    dl516 FOUND 008444 priority 2 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_successStories ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_successStories

    Pakistan: a Tough but Vital Place to Do Family Planning

       August 6, 2015, Impatient Optimists   By: Juan Enrique Garcia

    In the rural Sindh Province of Pakistan, Juan Enrique Garcia (of DKT Pakistan) met a woman so poor that she fed her six children three on one day, and three the next. This reaffirmed the importance of the programs giving Pakistani couples options for healthy spacing and timing of births. The 2012-13 Demographic and Health Survey for Pakistan found that only 26% of married women use a modern method of birth control - lower than the 66% who do so in Mexico and lower than in all neighboring countries, except Afghanistan.

    Pakistan has pledged to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for modern methods to 55% by 2020. That would double the CPR in only eight years. The authors job at DKT Pakistan is to help the government reach that goal.

    Although 20% of married women say they want contraception but cannot access it, it is difficult to discuss the subject openly in Pakistani society. At home women are told to have many children and at least one male child. The pressure can come from the husband, the mother-in-law, other family members or society at large. The reluctance to discuss contraception occurs even inside DKT Pakistan, a family planning NGO. When they hire new sales person, they spend time trying to make the new person feel okay about selling contraception. However some soon leave the job, forcing DKT to find and train a new person.

    DKT Pakistan has built up a social franchising network of 800 midwife-owned and operated Dhanak (rainbow in Urdu) clinics in a little less than three years. They aim to have 1,200 clinics operating in all parts of Pakistan by the end of 2015. Their mission is to provide couples with affordable and safe options for family planning and HIV prevention through social marketing and social franchising. They go to remote and rural areas with difficult access, where many other organizations do not go but where 65% of Pakistanis live. To help families understand the benefits, DKT sponsors tea parties for men and women to relax and converse about long-acting reversible contraceptives. DKT also hold mobile video shows in rural areas, with separate shows for women and men.

    DKT Pakistan, like the other 20 DKT International programs around the world, tries to push cultural boundaries, without violating them, in order to make the greatest impact possible (see their best TV spots from around the world). But still, DKT sometimes ruffles feathers. For example, in 2013, a TV spot featuring the provocative Pakistani model Mathira playing a newlywed trying to please her husband in the bedroom aired only 10 days before the censors banned it. Yet the spot has now been seen millions of times on YouTube and helped increase DKT's sales of Josh condoms.

    Although DKT clinics are in very different regions and cultural settings, they have a few things in common: They share a standard appearance, signage, advertising, quality standards, etc.; they offer training and refresher training to for their clinical staffs; they provide a full line of reproductive health services and products, most of which are offered through DKT Pakistan's parallel social marketing program.

    Since the Dhanak clinics are usually owned and operated by women, the clinics also empower women and provide a model of entrepreneurial self-sufficiency.

    DKT Pakistan has just joined the work led by Aman Health Care Services under the SUKH Initiative with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Their goal is to increase modern contraceptive use by 15% among married women in selected, low-income communities of Karachi. DKT's role will be to identify and franchise 80 private sector clinics as Dhanak clinics and promote family planning. Due to political and ethnic violence, many health providers have abandoned their facilities in some of these areas, so our clinics will help fill that gap. The first 35 clinics are expected to be operational in 2015.

    In Pakistan, many obstacles block greater acceptance and use of family planning. But Pakistani women want it, and DKT's private-sector approach will bring it to them. doclink

    10 Things America Does So Much Worse Than Europe

       July 11, 2015, Salon   By: Alex Henderson

    1. Lower Incarceration Rates

    2. Less Violent Crime Than the U.S.

    3. Better Sex Education Programs, Healthier Sexual Attitudes

    For decades, the Christian Right has been trying to convince Americans that social conservatism and abstinence-only sex education programs will reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. The problem is that the exact opposite is true: European countries with comprehensive sex-ed programs and liberal sexual attitudes actually have lower rates of teen pregnancy and STDs. Looking at data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Guttmacher Institute, Advocates for Youth and other sources, one finds a lot more teen pregnancies in the U.S. than in Europe. Comprehensive sex-ed programs are the norm in Europe, where in 2008, there were teen birth rates of 5.3 per 1000 in the Netherlands, 4.3 per 1000 in Switzerland and 9.8 per 1000 in Germany compared to 41.5 per 1000 in the United States. In 2009, Germany had one-sixth the HIV/AIDS rate of the United States (0.1% of Germany's adult population living with HIV or AIDS compared to 0.6% of the U.S. adult population), while the Netherlands had one-third the number of people living with HIV or AIDS that year (0.2% of the Netherlands' population compared to 0.6% of the U.S.' adult population).

    4. Anti-GMO Movement Much More Widespread

    5. Saner Approaches to Abortion

    Logic never was the Christian Right's strong point. The same far-right Christian fundamentalists who favor outlawing abortion and overturning the U.S. Supreme Court's Roe v. Wade decision of 1973 cannot grasp the fact that two of the things they bitterly oppose -- contraception and comprehensive sex education programs -- reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies and therefore, reduce the need for abortions. But in many European countries, most politicians are smart enough to share Bill Clinton's view that abortion should be "safe, legal and rare." And the ironic thing is that European countries that tend to be sexually liberal also tend to have lower abortion rates. The Guttmacher Institute has reported that Western Europe, factoring in different countries, has an average of 12 abortions per 1000 women compared to 19 per 1000 women in North America (Eastern Europe, according to Guttmacher, has much higher abortion rates than Western Europe). Guttmacher's figures take into account Western Europe on the whole, although some countries in that part of the world have fallen below that 12 per 1000 average. For example, the UN has reported that in 2008, Switzerland (where abortion is legal during the first trimester) had an abortion rate of 6.4 per 1,000 women compared to 19.6 per 1000 women in the U.S. that year. And Guttmacher has reported that countries where abortion is illegal or greatly restricted tend to have higher abortion rates than countries where it is legal: back-alley abortions are common in Latin America and Africa.

    Clearly, better sex education, easier access to birth control and universal healthcare are decreasing the number of abortions in Western Europe. So instead of harassing, threatening and terrorizing abortion providers, the Christian Right needs to examine the positive effects that sexually liberal attitudes are having in Switzerland and other European countries.

    6. More Vacation Time

    7. Universal Healthcare

    The U.S. made a small step in the direction of universal healthcare when Congress passed the Affordable Care Act in 2010, but the U.S. is so backwards when it comes to health care that implementing even the modest reforms of the ACA (which doesn't go far enough) has been an epic battle. Meanwhile, every developed country in Western Europe has universal health care, which is implemented in different ways in different countries.

    8.Greater Life Expectancy

    9. Mass Transit Systems

    10. Europeans More Likely to Speak Foreign Languages doclink

    Aggressive Efforts Underway to Abolish Child Marriage in Niger by the Year 2050

       October 2, 2014, AllAfrica.com   By: Priscilla Masilamani

    The country of Niger has the highest incidence of child marriages in the world, with 77% of the underage girls currently married. One in three girls is married before the age of 15, according to UNICEF.

    Religion, tradition and culture play a part while poverty, gender inequality and weak legislation add fuel to this violation of girl's rights.

    The UNFPA in Niger has been, since 2012, aggressively carrying out ground work in raising awareness to put an end to this practice. "By carrying out strategic development and empowerment training, and by collectively engaging the community leaders and grassroots people, the UNFPA is foreseeing a future where child marriages would be completely abolished by the year 2050," says Monique Clesca, UNFPA Representative. The goal is to abolish the practice by 2050.

    An eight-month educational training program for girls make them aware of the rights they have as children. "Training is provided about how their bodies work, hygiene, and also their reproductive and sexual health." said Clesca. For example, Amina, a 13 year old girl, learned that she, as a child, has her own rights. When she was forced by her parents to get married to a man three times older than her, she stood up for herself and refused to marry. She was beaten and ran away, but she did not bend to the demands of her family. Finally, she was able live in her uncle's house, where she now attends a special school, learning to read and write.

    The UNFPA hopes to reduce domestic and sexual violence, maternal and infant health risks, incidence of STDs and fistula, which are all a few of the direct results of child marriage.

    The UNFPA also targets the men in a program called 'The Husband School,' which brings together men from various communities to help them understand the health consequences of marrying a child.

    "With the husbands being schooled, we are seeing a tremendous change in the attitude of men. Now, girls tell us that the husbands themselves willingly take them to healthcare centers. The men are waking up," Clesca said.

    With success stories on the increase, Clesca hopes to see an enormous difference in the rate of child marriage in the next survey to be conducted by the UNFPA in 2017.

    Clesca tells of the importance of a huge social movement to see a visible change. "We need different sectors of the community to come together at a local, national and international level to make a large, lasting difference." doclink

    How Has the World Changed in the Last 20 Years?

       April 7, 2014, UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund

    Twenty years ago, the international community gathered in Cairo, Egypt, at the the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). There, 179 governments signed on to the ICPD Programme of Action, which recognizes that women, their rights and equality are global development priorities. The governments committed to: providing universal access to voluntary family planning, sexual and reproductive health services and rights; delivering gender equality and equal access to education; addressing the impacts of urbanization and migration; and supporting sustainable development.

    Ways our world is different:

    1. The world now has the largest generation of young people ever. Those between 10 and 24 years old accounted for 28% of the world population in 2010. The world must invest in the needs and rights of this group, supporting their access to quality health care and education, opportunities for safe paid work, and freedom from abuses such as early marriage and pregnancy.

    2. The proportion of people living on less than $1.25 per day has fallen from 47% in 1990 to 22% in 2010. But growing inequality could undermine these gains. 8% of the world's population has 82% of the wealth, and over a billion people do not have access to social protections, meaningful work, or public health or education services.

    3. In the last 20 years, the world's population grew by about a quarter, from 5.66 billion to 7.24 billion.

    4. The population growth rate has slowed from 1.52% annually to 1.15%. We can now expect the global population to reach 9.55 billion by 2050.

    5. Women are having fewer children. The average woman had about three children in 1994. Today, the fertility rate is around 2.5 children per woman. However, in 18 countries, fertility rates stand at five children or more per woman.

    6. Adolescent childbearing has fallen by 50% or more in many countries. However, each day 20,000 girls under age 18 give birth and every year, there are 70,000 adolescent deaths from complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

    7. Contraceptive use has increased. But between 2008 and 2012, the proportion of married women in the developing world using modern contraceptives only changed from 56% to 57%. There are about 222 million women without access to modern contraception.

    8. Maternal deaths have dropped by 47% since 1994. Today, 800 maternal deaths occur every day, and the leading causes - postpartum haemorrhage, sepsis, obstructed labour, complications from unsafe abortion, and hypertensive disorders - are all preventable.1,3

    9. Child deaths fell by nearly half. A major factor contributing to this decline is increased education for women and girls.

    10. The number of births occurring under the care of a skilled attendant - a doctor, midwife or nurse - has grown from 56% in 1990 to 67% in 2011. Skilled birth attendance is one of the most critical ways to ensure safe delivery for both mother and child. That, along with increased access to antenatal care, emergency obstetric care and family planning services, accounts for much of the decline in maternal deaths.

    11. Life expectancy has increased by 5.2 years.

    12. Abortion rates have declined, from 35 per 1,000 women in 1995 to 29 per 1,000 women in 2008. Addressing unmet family planning needs would avert 54 million unintended pregnancies and result in 26 million fewer abortions.

    13, 14, 15 - HIV/AIDS, SIDs, non-communicable diseases.

    16. Primary school enrolment rates have jumped from 75% in 1990 to about 90% in 2010. But gender inequality still exists.

    17. The global urban population rose by 1.6 billion between 1994 and 2014. More than half the world's people now live in towns or cities. But too much of this growth is taking place in slums.

    18. More people are migrating than ever before.

    19. The number of older persons increased from 490 million in 1990 to 765 million in 2010.

    20. Record numbers of people are displaced within their countries by conflict or violence, taking a disproportionate toll on women and girls.

    Much more work to be done

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and child marriage remain prevalent in much of the world, even in countries where these practices have been outlawed.

    Gender-based violence continues to be a global epidemic. An estimated one in three women report experiencing physical or sexual abuse, most commonly by an intimate partner.

    Discrimination against women continues in every society in the world, and belief in gender equality is not yet universal. doclink

    Why it Takes Teens With Condoms to Encourage Family Planning in Africa

       November 2013, Time magazine   By: Alexandra Sifferlin

    This year, Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, will host the annual International Family Planning Conference. Ethiopia's public health facilities offer several contraceptive options. Usage has grown from 8% in 2000 to 29% in 2011. Combining family planning with immunizations, antibiotics and other health services has reduced Ethiopia's maternal and child mortality rates. Minister of Health, Catherine Gotani Hara, says that women have fewer children when they expect them all to survive.

    The success of programs in Ethiopia, Rwanda, and Malawi show that even poor nations can make family planning work. Contraceptives are free at public health clinics in all three of these nations. Women tend to pick long-acting reversible and discreet contraceptives (like implants and IUDs) over condoms and pills. But clinics offer other options so users can decide for themselves which methods to choose.

    Women often fear their husband's reaction, so health workers often offer birth control outside the clinic so husbands won't know that their wives have visited the program. Where men resist family planning, Ethiopia sends male mentors to their homes to help convince them. Officials in Rwanda encourage male family planning methods such as vasectomies. In Malawi, village campaigns headed by community chiefs promote family planning for couples. They include the voice and perspective of as many men as possible, including respected elders.

    Some programs also focus on teens. Although many 18-year-old girls are already married with children, some national leaders fail to acknowledge that teens have sex. Ethiopian community health centers now include youth services and private offices to educate teens and offer them contraceptives. Boys even learn about family planning in primary school. Since teens may feel uncomfortable discussing sex with adults, some organizations use unconventional approaches to reach them. For example, Planned Parenthood partners with Mary Joy Aid Through Development to train Ethiopian teens as peer health promoters who can talk to other teens about sexual health issues and distribute pills and condoms.

    Ethiopia's constitution makes access to family planning a woman's right, which highlights the critical role it has in that nation. Rwanda also introduced strong policies in support of family planning. It improved access to contraceptives by stocking up all public health clinics and training more family planning providers. This resulted in a 10-fold increase in contraceptive use (from 4% of married women of reproductive age in 2000 to 45% by 2010).

    In Ethiopia and Malawi, health extension workers help get people to clinics. USAID helps these nations fund the Women's Development Army, which trains community mothers as extension workers. In addition to a hospital and small health center in every community, Ethiopia also staffs a health post with two extension workers. They go door to door and they host informal gatherings to promote family planning and answer questions. Before joining the Women's Development Army, Yenenesh Deresa had her first of five children at 15. Now she talks to women about family planning over coffee. She says this empowers women to make their own decisions and have safer pregnancies.

    Countries that lower their fertility rates often experience an economic boost known as the demographic dividend. Family planning allows more women to work and help grow the economy. Where girls can work and support themselves, the nation has fewer dependents, thus adding to its stability. The first step is to lower fertility rates, but for young people of both genders to join the workforce, they must be trained and jobs must exist. This is mainly a problem for girls in low-resource countries since about a quarter of them get pregnant and drop out of school. Roman Tesfaye, First Lady of Ethiopia, says to become a middle income nation, girls "need to be protected from unplanned pregnancies." Zewdtu Areda, who oversees health services in her area, sees significant progress. "You can see that things are changing now for women. I am a woman, and I am a leader here." doclink

    Art says: According to 2013 CIA World Factbook estimates, these three nations still have a long way to go. Ethiopia has 5.31 children per woman. Malawi has 5.26 children per woman, and Rwanda has 4.71 children per woman

    Why I Work on Family Planning and Reproductive Health: Reflections on World Population Day

       July 11, 2013, MSH - Management Sciences for Health   By: Fabio Castaño

    In the 1960s, during Columbia's demographic transition, Fabio's Castaño's father and mother came from large families and consequently never went to college, but instead had to work hard as teens to help their families. At that time Profamilia, a Columbian affiliate of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), was helping steer the country through successful demographic transition. Fabio's mother wanted an education for her children and convinced her husband that the best way out of poverty was hard work and having a small family.

    Out of their large extended family of 70-plus, Fabio was the first one to graduate from college and medical school. Fabio's two sisters also received an education. Fabio's story exemplifies how access to reproductive health and family planning in a low-income country can have tremendous economic and life-transforming impact for young people and a whole generation -- beyond the reduction in fertility and improvements in health.

    On July 11, World Population Day, we observed the one-year anniversary of the London Summit and the launch of the FP2020 initiative. The momentum for voluntary family planning and reproductive health is growing, However, globally more than 200 million females still have an unmet need. Many of them are adolescents.This unmet need leads to unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions.

    This unmet need can be met through quality family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH) services. innovative public/private partnerships and high impact, evidence-based interventions, such as through integrating FP/RH with adolescent health and maternal, newborn, and child health services and HIV services, implementing community-based FP, encouraging healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy, and by ensuring contraceptive security.

    MSH - Management Sciences for Health - has over 40 years of experience in bolstering the capacity of local partners to dramatically expand community-based care, especially key maternal, neonatal, child health, adolescent, and family planning services. MSH has been actively engaged in helping end child marriage, such as through promoting equal access to health care for women and girls in more than 135 countries for over four decades.

    Choosing to have a small family-and having access to quality family planning services and information-can lead to a multitude of positive effects for people's health, education, and economic safety. doclink

    DKT International's Social Impact Entrepreneurs Are Transforming Family Planning

       April 25, 2013, Business Wire

    DKT uses social impact entrepreneurship as a tool to sell condoms and other contraceptives and provide reproductive health and family planning services, through innovative marketing and distribution channels, including the Internet, social media sites, midwives, clinics, drug and grocery stores. This approach differs greatly from traditional nonprofits by providing goods and services as normal commercial purchases that offer consumers a benefit at an affordable price.

    In its most recent fiscal year DKT's $130 million in total revenue was balanced by an equal amount spent on programs, with approximately 70% of program costs recovered through sales. The balance of revenue comes from donors, and DKT's revenue generating models greatly leverage donor funds. It's an entrepreneurial model that works. In 2012 DKT programs prevented an estimated 8.2 million unwanted pregnancies, 1.7 million abortions, and more than 14,000 maternal deaths.

    Christopher Purdy, Executive Vice President of DKT International says: "Our strategy depends on recruiting high performing people who are true social impact entrepreneurs. Many country directors have undergraduate or advanced business degrees, and some have served in corporate marketing or business capacities before joining us. They direct a field staff of 1,800 people and have wide autonomy to make decisions quickly."

    DKT International's use of social marketing for reproductive health products and services builds contraception and family planning demand through mass media and non-traditional messaging that reduce social stigma and target all socio-economic groups. Each country director runs his or her custom-tailored, culturally appropriate program designed to reach the maximum number of people in each market segment.

    "Our directors use new approaches in countries where tradition, religious restrictions, government censorship and politics complicate their task," Purdy added. "By providing people with an essential service that they value, and can afford, our country directors create real momentum for social change." doclink

    According to Wikipedia, DKT International is Washington, D.C.-based; was founded in 1989 by Phil Harvey and operates in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In 2012, DKT sold over 600 million condoms, 76 million cycles of oral contraceptives, 16 million injectable contraceptives and 1.5 million intrauterine devices (IUDs). This is equivalent to 25 million couple years of protection (CYPs), making DKT one of the largest private providers of contraceptives in the developing world. The average cost per CYP was less than US$3.00. Charity Navigator has given DKT a four-star financial rating, with 98.3% of its budget going towards programs and 1.6% towards administration and fund raising in 2010.

    Thailand: Thai Restaurant Offers Family Planning Advice with Meals

       December 20, 2012, Times of India

    Cabbages and Condoms Restaurant Years ago former politician and activist Mechai Viravaidya popularised condoms, family planning and AIDS awareness in Thailand and helped establish a restaurant called Cabbages and Condoms where condoms are distributed along with the bill. Eventually six such restaurants were established across the south east Asian country.

    Now the idea has been brought over to the UK with the new restaurant in Bicester, Oxfordshire, leading the way with all profits from merchandise sales donated to charitable causes in Thailand.

    Diners are given leaflets on protective sex at the end of the meal and even encouraged to buy condom-themed merchandise. The new restaurant even has the slogan 'and remember our food is guaranteed not to cause pregnancy.'

    The name of the eatery refers to the idea that people should buy condoms alongside everyday mundane items such as cabbages.

    Diners at the new restaurant will get the chance to sample traditional Thai food 'in a cosy atmosphere.' Later they are urged to buy unusual condom-themed merchandise such as mugs, keyrings and books and even a mascot made out of the contraceptive. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: I have eaten in the Bangkok Cabbages and Condoms. It is a very nice restaurant with a fun gift shop to browse. Thailand's fertility rate is 1.58 and it's population growth rate is 0.6% and still declining.

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2 3

    Lack of Funding, Narrow-Minded Policy Makers

    dl516 FOUND 032147 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 031546 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 030579 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 029380 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 028933 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 028451 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M`;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 027741 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 024770 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 024240 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs Impacts_GlobalWarmingItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 023999 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 021517 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 021249 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 020293 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 019596 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;FundingPolitics_CurrentStatus`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 015827 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 015170 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;FundingPolitics_philanthropists`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics
    dl516 FOUND 014894 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FundingPolitics ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FundingPolitics

    Reproductive Health: the Battle Resumes

       January 8, 2015, Huffington Post   By: Robert Walker

    One the first day of Congress this year, Representatives Trent Franks (Ariz.) and Marsha Blackburn (Tenn.) reintroduced legislation to stop women from terminating pregnancies after 20 weeks.

    The proposed abortion ban is part of a much larger, ongoing struggle over reproductive health and rights in America. The Population Institute recently gave the U.S. a "C" for Reproductive Health Rights in 2014, a slight improvement over last year's grade ("C-"). 15 states received a failing grade.

    Several states enacted arbitrary abortion restrictions that will likely lead to the closure of more family planning clinics, making contraceptive services more difficult to access. Other states approved further cutbacks in funding for family planning clinics, while 23 states still reject the expansion of Medicaid coverage called for by the Affordable Care Act, effectively denying millions of women improved access to contraceptive services.

    It might get worse. If the U.S. Supreme Court overturns key sections of the Affordable Care Act or Congress repeals it altogether, millions of women could be forced to pay a lot more for their contraceptive coverage. And if Congress slashes or eliminates funding for Title X, the federal program that provides family planning services to low-income households, millions of women could suffer a loss of contraceptive services.

    More states could cut funding for family planning clinics or impose arbitrary restrictions on birth control clinics providing abortion services. Unfortunately, contrary to the stated intention of the attackers, the practical effect will be more abortions, not fewer.

    The Institute's report card ranked the states based on measures of effectiveness, including:

    * The teenage pregnancy rate (15% of the score)

    * The rate of unintended pregnancies (15%)

    * Mandated comprehensive sex education in the schools (15%)

    * Access to emergency contraception (5%)

    * Whether states are expanding Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (10%)

    * Medicaid eligibility rules for family planning (10%)

    * Funding for family planning clinics serving low-income families (10%)

    * Abortion restrictions (10%)

    * Percent of women living in a county without an abortion provider (10%).

    Four states (California, New Mexico, Oregon and Washington) received an "A".

    Fifteen states received an "F": Alabama, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming.

    Last year could have been a great victory for women's reproductive health with tumbling teen pregnancy rates and increased access to reproductive health care for women under the Affordable Care Act. Unfortunately, setbacks at the state level negated some of the gains.

    The reported teen pregnancy rate continued its historic drop, a 51% decline since its 1990 peak, however America's teenage pregnancy rate is still higher than other industrialized nations. Also 50% of pregnancies are unintended. All women need to have access to affordable reproductive health services and young people need to receive comprehensive sex education in the schools.

    The outlook for 2015 is not positive. Millions of women could experience reduced access to contraceptive services in the next year. We should not let that happen. doclink

    Family Planning Drive Reaches Millions of Women and Girls

    But report warns population growth could outpace family planning programmes in some countries despite range of contraception initiatives
       November 3, 2014, Mail and Guardian   By: Carla Kweifio-okai

    During the London Family Planning Summit donors pledged $2.6 billion to bring contraception to 120 million more women and girls in developing countries by 2020 than would otherwise be served. This year's Partnership in Progress report shows last year the increase was one million below the projected benchmark of 9.4 million. To meet the planned objective, the program will need to reach 120 million more women and girls by 2020. The report said, in some countries population growth may outpace the expansion of family planning programs. "in many countries, an enormous effort is required simply to maintain existing levels of service." The U.N. population fund estimates that the "unmet need" of voluntary family planning will actually grow by 40% in the next 15 years.

    However, several accomplishments are worth noting. The plan calls for, and is, reducing maternal mortality. Widening access to family planning services helped avert 125,000 maternal deaths last year, compared with 120,000 in 2012, and 24 million unsafe abortions, compared with 23 million the previous year. In Bhutan, Djibouti, Kenya and Rwanda growth in contraceptive use exceeded 2.5% last year compared with an average of 0.65% in developing countries. Also, the global contraceptive implant program made agreements with pharmaceutical companies to address the problems of high costs and short supply that blocked women from accessing implants. Cutting the cost of implants by 50% in more than 60 countries has allowed a projected tripling of implants from 2.4 million units in 2011 to 7.7 million this year. The rollout of Sayana Press, an injectable contraceptive with a disposable syringe, allows community health workers to give injections after only two hours' training. Burkina Faso will distribute 250,000 units this year, and Niger, Senegal and Uganda will be next. Also, the mCenas! project in Mozambique educates young people about contraception via text, and a television and online drama series in India highlights family planning.

    Report Director, Beth Schlachter, mentioned two resupply innovations. In Kenya, health clinics send text messages to more quickly resupply empty shelves, and in Senegal a supply truck now stops by regularly to keep clinics and pharmacies from running out of contraceptives. She also said it was promising to see 12 countries host conferences on family planning in the past year. "Countries that have never before endorsed family planning - such as Myanmar and Uganda - are now holding national conferences on the subject, and ministries of health are developing costed implementation plans and adding contraceptive line items to their budgets." Five more countries - Benin, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Mauritania and Burma - last year pledged to expand access to contraception, bringing the tally of committed countries to 29. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: I don't understand the recent emphasis on family planning in Myanmar. Their fertility rate is only 2.18. See https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bm.html

    Ethiopia: New CSIS Report and Video: Family Planning and Linkages with U.S. Health and Development Goals (video)

       April 23, 2014, SmartGlobalHealth.org   By: Janet Fleischman, Senior Associate, and Alisha Kramer

    The video is designed to bring the voices of Ethiopian women and girls as well as champions of family planning into the U.S. policy discussion. Rural women, health extension workers, and an Orthodox priest, along with an official of the Ministry of Health and the First Lady, lend their voices to vividly highlight the importance of family planning as a core component of Ethiopia's development.

    In Ethiopia contraceptive use rose from 15% in 2005 to 29% in 2011, due largely to the government's ambitious Health Extension Program. The U.S. has made significant investments in Ethiopia's health and development programs, and has been a critical partner in its achievements in family planning.

    Ethiopia is the second-most populous country in Africa, with high levels of maternal mortality and extreme poverty. It is imperative to increase access to women's health services and to address the unmet need for family planning. These challenges are compounded by the government's restrictions on civil society and the private sector, especially related to democracy and human rights.

    A delegation composed of bipartisan staff from three congressional offices - Senator Mark Kirk (R-IL), Representative Charlie Dent (R-PA), and Representative Karen Bass (D-CA) - and from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Hope Through Healing Hands (founded by former Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist) - visited the country to clarify and illuminate the value of family planning through an in-country study of a dynamic national program.

    The delegation's findings underscore the importance of continuing U.S. global leadership in family planning.

    The Obama administration and the U.S. Congress are called upon to use upcoming opportunities in 2014 to demonstrate commitment to prioritizing family planning as integral to U.S. policy on health and development. These include:

    • At the African Leaders Summit in August 2014, President Obama should ensure that women's health and access to family planning are an explicit part of high-level discussions;

    • Secretary of State John Kerry should elevate the importance of family planning for women's and girls' health and empowerment as part of U.S. diplomatic, development, and security strategies. This includes engaging with the African Union, publicly recognizing that family planning is an essential part of the response to gender-based violence and post-rape care; and supporting the inclusion of family planning targets and indicators in the post 2015 development agenda.

    • Congress should prioritize resources for international family planning programs and for linkages between family planning and other health and development programs, such as maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, gender equity and women's economic empowerment, humanitarian responses, and food security.

    Dr. Tewodros said: "family planning is beyond health...it is beyond a gender issue. In Ethiopia, we consider it as a fundamental rights issue."

    The report is here: http://csis.org/files/publication/140417_Fleischman_FamilyPlanningEthiopia_Web.pdf doclink

    The Geography of Unintended Pregnancy (infographic)

       September 4, 2013, Huffington Post

    About half of the of the 6.7 million pregnancies in the U.S. each year are unplanned, according to a new state-level analysis by the Guttmacher Institute. The unintended pregnancy rate is a standout in the industrialized world, and has remained nearly flat since the 1980s despite advances in birth control technology and availability.

    Women with incomes at or below the federal poverty line are five times more likely than those at the highest income levels to become pregnant by accident - and unintended pregnancies have become increasingly clustered among the poor in recent years. Most of the births resulting from unplanned pregnancies are publicly funded, and they aren't cheap.

    Unintended pregnancy remains the main reason for abortion, a procedure three in 10 American women have by age 45.

    doclink

    Family Planning is Key to Healthy Pregnancies and Births

       May 10, 2013, Guttmacher Institute

    Each year in the United States an estimated 11,300 babies die on the day they are born, according to Save the Children. This is the highest first-day death rate in the industrialized world. Investing in and expanding the reach of programs like Medicaid and Title X would make affordable pregnancy-related care and family planning services available to millions of women otherwise unable to obtain such care and would result in fewer first day deaths.

    Contributing factors include preterm, unplanned and teen births. One in eight U.S. babies are born prematurely and U.S. preterm births rank second only to Cyprus in the industrialized world. Half of all U.S. pregnancies are unintended and the U.S. adolescent birth rate is the highest among industrialized countries -- with teenage mothers tending to be poorer, less educated and receiving less prenatal care than older mothers.

    Comprehensive efforts are needed to reduce pervasive economic, social and health disparities, including improving access to high-quality, affordable maternity care for all women and making effective family planning available to every woman who needs it. These interventions are proven to offer direct and positive effects on newborns' and mothers' health.

    Studies show there is a causal link between proper birth spacing and low birth weight, preterm birth and small size for gestational age. There is also an association between pregnancy intention and delayed initiation of prenatal care; women are less likely to recognize a pregnancy early if it is unplanned and therefore have fewer prenatal care visits. Children born from unintended pregnancies are less likely to be breast-fed at all or for a long duration.

    Contraception has played a major roll in the drop of the U.S. teen birth rate, which has declined for nearly two decades and the 2010 rate represents a 44% drop from the 1991 rate.

    Medicaid, Title X and other public programs help women avoid 1.94 million unintended pregnancies each year, which would otherwise result in 860,000 unplanned births and 810,000 abortions. Without these programs, levels of unintended pregnancy would be nearly two-thirds higher among U.S. women overall and among teens -- and close to twice as high among poor women. Ideological and fiscal attacks against these programs are not only counterproductive, but threaten to worsen what is already a severe crisis for U.S. women and newborns. doclink

    The Secret History of Sex, Choice and Catholics

       December 29, 2012, RH Reality Check   By: Jon O'brien

    The organization Catholics for Choice has made a movie called "The Secret History of Sex, Choice and Catholics." Jon O'Brien, who was the one who decided to make the movie, explained that he was talking to a stranger who felt uncomfortable with many of the positions taken by Catholics for Choice, and O'brian told the gentleman that his work in support of reproductive rights was not despite his Catholic faith, but because of it.

    The Catholic "social justice tradition wouldn't let me turn my back on people in need; nor would it allow me to ignore the importance of conscience in moral decision-making. Both issues relate directly to reproductive health: women are in the best place to make the decisions that affect their health, and deserve all the support necessary when life's challenges threaten their well-being, their health, or even their very lives. Those who are rich will always have the means to bypass the obstacles in their way, legal or otherwise, whereas the poor and needy are always the ones who suffer."

    O'Brian asked the gentleman "Why do you deny the truth about all the affirming messages in Catholic theology about women, choice, and sexuality in general?" and was told: "Those issues are too hot to handle." He would have been denied mainstream acceptance and positions if he'd tackled issues like reproductive rights. Rather than pick that fight, he had chosen, as many others do, to keep his head down Apparently those whose understanding and interpretation of core Catholic teachings is a little different the standard teaching are slighted and attacked for raising legitimate points of view about church teaching.

    There is a reason why people like Bishop Kevin Dowling, who tells the truth about Catholics and condoms in the shanty towns of South Africa, do not attain the trappings of power, position, and influence that have been lavished upon so many ultra-conservative American clergymen of late.

    "Telling the truth about Catholic theology really matters. It matters for reasons of self-respect, and it matters for so many who think they have to choose between their faith and how they live their lives. For me, working with theologians and so many marvelous thinkers in the church who are not afraid to stand up and speak out has been an amazing experience. It is truly liberating when you see that it is possible to be both true to yourself and authentically Catholic at the same time."

    And so, after talking to a filmmaker, the "The Secret History of Sex, Choice and Catholics" was born.

    The "secret" is that there is more than one magisterium -- in addition to the hierarchy, there is also the magisterium of the theologians and that of the people. This means that any of us can be called to teach, and for many this can mean doing what the theologians and thinkers in the film have done: bravely speak out. Their paths often lead straight into confrontation with established authority.

    The first day we released the movie, thousands of people worldwide -- from the Philippines to South Africa, from the US to Eastern Europe -- watched the film online. There is clearly a genuine hunger for this message.

    Non-Catholics have learned from the film what the majority of Catholics actually believe. And the story told by "The Secret History" isn't just for Catholics. It gets to the heart of how we all make moral decisions and seek compassionate answers. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: population activists often get accused of being racist. Why do so many people think that family planning is evil? Why can't they see family planning benefits the family primarily, the community secondarily, and the world is behind family and community in importance.

    Philippines Faces Contraception Vote

       August 6, 2012, Wall Street Journal

    There has been controversy in the Philippines as representatives of the Roman Catholic Church and President Benigno Aquino III clash over a proposed reproductive-health bill designed to bring down the country's unusually high birthrate.

    With a population of 104 million people and a birthrate of 25 births per 1,000 every year (compared to 13.7 per 1,000 in the U.S.) economists have suggested that the problems the Philippines has experienced in terms of poverty, pressure on natural resources and overburdened infrastructure will continue to cause hardship unless something is done. Affluent couples in the country have fewer than three children on average but the country's low-income mothers have nearly six.

    The proposed bill, which is being debated in the Philippines House of Representatives, would require the government to make contraceptives available. It would also require officials to provide information on family-planning methods and provide classes on reproductive health and sexuality in schools.

    With the results of a vote from the Philippines House of Representatives expected any day now the Catholic Church has been leading widespread protests, with an estimated 10,000 people protesting the bill in Manila in one day alone. Archbishop Socrates Villegas of Pangasinan province attended the rally and was quoted as saying "Contraception is corruption", "The use of government and taxpayer money to promote contraception is tantamount to corruption." He also expressed concerns that contraception made sex "cheap without responsibility".

    Despite support for the bill from the United Nations, the bill would not only have to pass the vote in the House of Representatives, it would require support from the senate, which analysts say will be difficult.

    Despite these difficulties, President Aquino seems determined to reduce poverty and improve the economy, and has met with some success in this regard. The GDP grew by 6.4% in the first quarter compared with last year (the fastest increase in six quarters) and country has experienced a series of credit rating upgrades.

    In spite of these economic improvements the Catholic Church maintains its opposition, with the belief that economic development does not outweigh their moral concerns. doclink

    FY 2011 Country Operational Plan Guidance Fails to Offer Detailed and Realistic Plan to Support HIV-FP (Family Planning) Integration

       October 12, 2010, Population Action International

    PEPFAR (President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) should ensure that a HIV-positive woman who wants to prevent unintended pregnancy can receive family planning services at any PEPFAR location. The ability to meet the immediate needs of a woman and provide comprehensive prevention of mother-to- child transmission (PMTCT) programs should not be contingent on the presence of another program or funding stream.

    In PEPFAR's annual Country Operational Plan (COP) guidance to the field, the Obama administration in principle continues to support an integrated, women and girl-centered approach to health services, but fails to provide implementers with the tools and guidance needed to make that a reality. This is a surprising development as it is the first COP released after the announcement of the Global Health Initiative (GHI) Plus Countries, and yet is out of step with public statements made by high-level officials touting the women and girl-centered, integrated approach to global health.

    As the COP process, GHI and PEPFAR implementation and additional guidance continue to evolve, we encourage partners in the field to communicate with staff at their mission and in the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator about what is working and what is not in order to inform their future decisions.

    The FY11 COP guidance says that:

    Any family planning services, including the provision of contraceptives for PMTCT, that are integrated with HIV services, must continue to be funded out of separate accounts. While these integrated activities are encouraged, the family planning commodities must be funded using non-PEPFAR funds.

    "Field teams are expected to prioritize opportunities to link PEPFAR-funded activities with those funded from separate accounts supporting reproductive health and family planning."

    PEPFAR programs are encouraged to provide referrals to family planning programs and to co-locate services. While this is a positive development, it does not address the family planning needs of women living in countries without family planning funding or programs. One-third of the 33 countries required to submit an FY11 COP do not receive any family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) assistance from USAID.

    Historically the U.S. has underfunded FP/RH programs and even recent important funding increases still leave FP/RH funding nearly 25% below their peak levels in 1995 (when adjusted for inflation) and below the U.S. fair share of addressing the needs of the 215 million women who want to avoid pregnancy, but do not have access to modern contraception.

    Without significant scale up of funding for FP/RH, meaningful integration of these services will not occur using the referral and co-location model articulated in the COP.

    The COP rightly identifies PMTCT programs as an ideal platform to deliver other essential health services, including family planning, but again misses an opportunity to maximize the improved health outcomes through fully supporting the tools needed to prevent mother-to-child transmission.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has long identified family planning as one of four essential components of PMTCT programs and many countries have both high HIV prevalence rates and high unmet need for family planning.

    While it was encouraging to see that PEPFAR funds could support much-needed PMTCT training for health workers that includes MCH (Mother and Child Health), family planning and reproductive health services for women living with HIV, the impact of having a trained work force and increased demand for these critical interventions is limited if the commodities needed to deliver the services remain unavailable. By issuing a COP that does not account for the increased demand for contraceptives that will likely result from training and community mobilization, PEPFAR falls short of ensuring that HIV positive women will be able to prevent unintended pregnancy and plan the timing and spacing of their pregnancies. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Birth Spacing

    dl516 FOUND 032104 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 031131 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 030908 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 029497 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 028814 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 028212 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 027982 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 027128 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 026947 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;Sustainability_Agriculture`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M`;Religion_Islam`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 026013 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 025303 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 023548 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 020849 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 021791 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 021347 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 021026 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 020198 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhyPopMatters_item`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 019907 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_NorthAmerica`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 019602 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 018706 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 017164 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 014835 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 013744 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;BirthControl_religiousAlternatives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 013683 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;BirthControl_childFree`M;USpopulation_births`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing
    dl516 FOUND 013272 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_birthSpacing ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_birthSpacing

    'One Key Question' to Revolutionize Reproductive, Public Health

       August 26, 2015, Public Health Newswire

    In Oregon there is a movement where doctors ask every woman of reproductive age "Would you like to become pregnant in the next year?" The movement is called One Key Question.

    The Oregon Foundation for Reproductive Health (OFRH) believes this question "triggers a doctor-patient discussion that will keep women healthier, help eliminate health disparities and save taxpayer dollars."

    The goal is to ensure that more pregnancies are wanted, planned and as healthy as possible.

    This question brings pregnancy intention screening and preventive reproductive health directly in to primary care. It opens the door to providing either preconception, prenatal or contraceptive care in a novel fashion that goes beyond simply asking if she is pregnant or using contraception. One Key Question is a conversation starter, not a checklist. It can initiate a genuine conversation that empowers a woman to plan her health care needs in support of her goals for herself and her family.

    OFRH tested many variations of asking about prenatal care and pregnancy prevention before determining this question to be the most effective. Clinicians implementing One Key Question have found that the majority of women have a clear opinion about whether or not they would like to become pregnant in the next year.

    However, when a woman answers "maybe" or "I don't know," One Key Question often effectively leads to identifying urgent health needs that may otherwise go undetected - such as depression, violence in the home or substance abuse - and leads to negative pregnancy outcomes.

    Women are relieved to be able to talk about their reproductive health needs in a primary care setting rather than through a separate appointment with a specialist. This more streamlined approach can be invaluable for low income women, women of color and those in rural communities, in particular, who have decreased access to reproductive health care.

    OFRH is very aware of the need to establish reliable systems for measuring the impact of One Key Question as it is implemented in sites nationwide.

    Ultimately, because One Key Question encourages women to obtain preconception care, we expect to see a drop-off in public health care costs as earlier identification and management of conditions such as diabetes and hypertension improve pregnancy, delivery and post-natal care and lower long-term costs for all women, but particularly for those with decreased access to specialized care. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: After I gave birth to my first child 50 years ago, my doctor asked me if I wanted to get pregnant right away. Of course I said 'No'. That's when I was introduced to contraception. In Bangladesh, the health care worker tells the pregnant woman to come back after the birth and when she comes back, she is offered birth control to space her pregnancies. That is how Bangladesh lowered its fertility rate so quickly.

    At Niger's School for Husbands, the Lesson is 'Space Your Children'

       August 13, 2014, NPR National Public Radio   By: Marc Silver

    Niger is a country that depends on agriculture, but since much of it is a desert, it has only a limited amount of land that can be farmed. This is a problem for a country that has the world's highest birthrate -- more than seven children per woman on average. It's current population will double in 20 years at that rate.

    The United Nations Population Fund began the school for husbands program in 2011 to help bring down the birth rate. In different communities, men meet twice a month, under a tree or in an open-air classroom, to talk about maternal health and contraception.

    In this society you have to convince the men that it's OK because that's how the decision is going to get made.

    Contraception is fairly controversial in Niger so much of the time they talk about child spacing. In Niger, you're a big man if you have a big family, yet this is becoming a huge problem. Even the president talked about it being shameful this month for people to have 20 kids if they're not able to feed them.

    The government is going to make contraception available in all the health clinics and get the word out that not only is it OK for women to use contraception but that they should be using contraception. Male condoms, female condoms, IUDs, injections, the pill will be available. In fact they are now available.

    Younger men are expecting a smaller family than previous generations. So that change is happening.

    There is also a push to have women get married later, not at 12 or 13 or 14 but in their late teens, early 20s. That shortens the period when they would be having children. In one case a girl went to court to stop her family from forcing her to marry her uncle in Nigeria. Ultimately, she was successful.

    Infant mortality is going down, so kids are surviving longer. But people don't yet understand that they don't need to have as many kids because most of the kids are now going to survive to adulthood. doclink

    How Bangladesh's Female Health Workers Boosted Family Planning

    Contraception delivered through female community health workers has helped to reduce birthrates and infant mortality
       June 6, 2014, Guardian   By: Kenneth R Weiss

    This interesting article is somewhat long but worth reading in its entirety (by clicking on the link in the headline), so here is the gist of it:

    Bangladesh established Matlab -- an experimental village -- in the 1960s and there trained a cadre of female community health workers who have been carefully maintaining one of the longest-running and most detailed health and population data sets in the developing world.

    These health care workers make house calls to administer child and maternal health and are widely credited for demonstrating how poor Muslim women with little or no formal education can plan their families.

    Ubaidur Rob, the non-profit Population Council's Bangladesh director said "Women were employed as field workers in the 1970s, when fertility was very high and female employment was virtually zero. This is where change began."

    In the mid-70s researchers divided 149 villages into two groups. One half participated in the Matlab centre's maternal and child healthcare initiatives, including home delivery of modern contraceptives, while the other had access only to government services.

    At that time, contraception was denounced by Islamic clerics. Dr Mohammad Yunus, who ran the Matlab centre for nearly 40 years said that what worked "was a comprehensive doorstep service with trained female health workers making regular follow-up visits to help mothers pick a method of contraception that was best for them, treat side-effects and provide basic maternal and child healthcare."

    In the Matlab half, married women were more likely to use contraceptives and, over time, had an average of 1.5 fewer children than their counterparts in the comparison area. Their children were healthier, fewer women died of pregnancy-related causes, and child mortality fell. Parents accumulated more farmland, built more valuable homes and gained access to running water. Their children stayed in school longer, and women enjoyed higher incomes.

    By the early 80s, when other areas using the Matlab approach had experienced a similar increase in contraceptive use, the government trained tens of thousands of female health workers using the Matlab model.

    Since then, average birthrates have fallen from six children a woman to slightly more than two; projections for Bangladesh's population in 2050 (currently 160 million) have dropped from 265 million (forecast in 2000) to 200 million, and stabilizing soon after. Also Bangladesh has become one of the first impoverished countries to meet the UN millennium development goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: one of the things that helped this program work was that new mothers were asked to come back after the baby was born, and during that visit, were asked if they wanted to have another baby soon. If the mother said 'No', the health care worker was prepared to give here one of an assortment of contraceptives.

    Nigeria: Bundling Child Spacing and Immunization Into One Integrated Service

    TSHIP Advancing Health in Bauchi and Sokoto Targeted States High Impact Project
       October 9, 2013, Vietnam News Agency

    Child spacing is a crucial aspect of improving the overall health of women in developing countries - helping to reduce unwanted pregnancies and the health risks associated with giving birth to many children. For children under-five years, a critical live saving measure is immunization.

    Bundling these two services together as TSHIP is doing provides a continuum of care - from child spacing, antenatal and postnatal needs of women to the care of children under-5 years.

    Raising awareness of child spacing is a tricky issue, especially in communities where conservative values are still strong. In an area of Sokoto such "cultural sensitivity" has been softened by making it a community-led exercise. The members of the WDC help start the needed dialogue at the community level, bringing health education and the issue of child spacing to locations as diverse as markets, gathering places and even places of worship.

    Another approach is the practice of holding child spacing education at the same time as immunization or antenatal services in health facilities. This takes less time and money, with local people keen to make the most of the health services offered. Maryam Umar, a worker at the Shuni dispensary, said 'I provide immunization and child spacing services to women when they bring their children for immunization, because of fear that the women will not come back on the child spacing session day. Some will even report us to the WDC if we do not provide them with all necessary services'.

    The changes in Shuni are just a small drop in the sea of change happening in Sokoto. The state has over 70% of its health facilities holding integrated child spacing and immunization sessions. As more women bring their children for immunization, the opportunity to reach these women with child spacing messages and services has equally increased.

    TSHIP = Targeted States High Impact Project: increases the use of health services and strengthens health systems to be more responsive to the basic health needs of households in Northern Nigeria doclink

    India: Family Planning After Childbirth Is Critical to Women's Health

       April 15, 2013, Impatient Optimists

    In India, Anita Devi had five children in nine years of marriage; three of her children were born within a year of each other. As part of India's postpartum family planning effort, the nurse-midwife encouraged Anita to choose contraception after the birth of her fifth child. Anita chose intrauterine contraception.

    "My mother-in-law was against any form of contraception," Mrs. Devi explained when asked about her previous births. "Though my second child was a son, she said that I should try for more sons. But my next children were girls. I was tired and felt I had nothing left in my body."

    In Bihar province, families have on average 3.7 children, and only 32.4 percent of women use any family planning method.

    With the support and technical expertise of Jhpiego (affiliate of Johns Hopkins University) and under the PPFP (Post Partum Family Planning) initiative supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, India's nurse-midwives are educating and counseling women about their family planning options during antenatal visits and introducing them to the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). This long-acting method lasts for 10 years and can be inserted within 48 hours after giving birth. 16 states are participating in the program.

    She has seen firsthand the challenges women and their families face when burdened with too many children, often struggling to provide them with food and clothing. "Only if we have smaller families will we be able to have healthier families where the children will get better nutrition and opportunities to educate themselves. Only then can we ultimately have a better and healthier society." doclink

    South Sudan Women Choose Family Planning, Longer Lives

       November 8, 2012, Voice of America News   By: Hannah Mcneish

    South Sudan has been cut off for nearly 50 years by Africa's longest running civil war, and, due to a lack of basic health and education, early marriage, and a culture that values big families have led to alarming child mortality rates, has seen the highest maternal mortality rate in the world. The average woman has seven children and at 1.7%, South Sudan has one of the lowest contraceptive availability rates in the world, plus early pregnancy has increased from one-fifth to one-third of teenagers in recent years.

    Now newly-independent South Sudan has been building a health service from scratch with the help of international aid agencies and South Sudanese women are getting the chance to improve their chances for a long life. South Sudan hopes to increase the contraceptive availability rate to 20% by 2015, as the new nation's population grows at three percent a year and it struggles to get a grip on providing basic services. Family planning charity Marie Stopes International (MSI) started programs in South Sudan's three southern states.

    One woman is getting a hormone implant that will space her children and give her a five-year break. Another woman has a husband earning a paltry and irregular salary, and she is determined to educate her children in a hope that one may someday lift the family out of poverty.

    Over 80% of South Sudan women have no education and 16% are married off by the age of 15.

    A clinical officer Jude Omal at one of the clinics said, "When we were beginning, we had a lot of resistance as people think when you provide family planning to a mother, or a lady of reproductive age, she may most likely turn into a prostitute. You say 'no, these services helps her to have children at a time when she thinks she's ready,' so this family planning is like an empowerment to women and girls of reproductive age."

    He said both men and women are increasingly aware about the links between a quick succession of pregnancies and lack of health care to high instances of maternal mortality. doclink

    Solutions to Poverty, Population Growth, Global Warming

       September 19, 2012, Los Angeles Times

    Experts from three continents convened last week at UC Berkeley to discuss rapid population growth, climate change and other intractable problems. Before the conference, the Los Angeles Times held an online video discussion with some of the conference attendees.

    The article in the Los Angeles Times newspaper explored such issues around the world in its recent five-part series on population growth in the developing world. Among other topics, the "Beyond 7 Billion" series examined chronic hunger and mass migration in East Africa -- trends that Dr. Malcolm Potts believes will soon extend across the Sahel, an arid region of Africa just below the Sahara desert.

    Malcom Potts, a UC Berkeley professor of public health who co-organized the conference said, "What you've been seeing from Somalia is going to happen in all those countries, all the way across from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean." .. "You've just seen a fraction of what's going to happen in the next 10 or 20 years." The goal of the online broadcast before the conference was to discuss solutions to the problems facing this part of Africa and other impoverished nations with soaring populations. He was joined by Dr. Ndola Prata of UC Berkeley, William Ryerson of the Population Media Center and Fatima Adamu from Usmanu Danfodiyo University in Sokoto, Nigeria. Kenneth R. Weiss was the moderator.

    Dr. Potts: The Sahel is dry dusty region in Africa which is affected by climate change and has rapid population growth, and the status of women is low. It is where there are many cases of drought and famine. Other areas are also in trouble: Afghanistan will double by 2050; people there are growing poppies instead of food. Child brides are a problem in both areas.

    Dr. Prata: Women need control over number and timing of their births; Over 200 million women don't want to have a child in the next two years or don't want to have children at all. They need access to family planning. Family planning is very cost effective and has a beneficial impact on maternal and child mortality. Women want to be able to send their children to school, and family planning helps this.

    Ryerson - Only 1% of people who don't use contraception cite lack of availability as the reason. 40% of non-users cite religion, husband, or personal, 17% want as many children as possible, a sizable number cite fear of side effects, and another large number are fatalistic - 'God will determine how many children I have'. We must be very careful to avoid cultural imperialism. What is important is people's perception of what is normal. This can be changed. Population Media Center uses serialized entertainment mass media featuring role modes of various types of people. PMC models behavior such as delaying marriage and childbearing until adulthood, prevention of HIV, spacing births, and communication between husbands and wives concerning health and number of children. Of those who were interviewed, 67% of clients of a family planning clinic gave the PMC radio show as the reason for patronizing the clinic.

    Dr. Adamu - Agrees with the need to give women information and the culturally sensitive way that is needed to introduce these issues. There must be no coercion of any kind. Every woman wants to improve her life. It is important for the woman to have information of where to get services. The majority of our women lack basic information. We must invest in the woman and empower her. Many times religion allows women to space their births.

    Dr Potts: The best contraception is 'what the woman wants'. Even illiterate women can get family planning. A woman in the poorest countries have a 1 in 12 chance of dying in childbirth compared 1 in 5,000 for a developed country. Family planning could prevent most of these deaths. The current cost to Americans for international family planning funding is the cost of one hamburger. To provide adequate family planning and reproductive health for all the women who have an unmet need, it would take the cost of two hamburgers. It is shameful that we let so many women die for the cost of a hamburger. And what we avoid by family planning is the great cost of war and the cost of feeding so many people.

    Dr. Potts: Education has been considered one of the best contraceptives, but in the Sahel the population is growing so rapidly that schools cannot keep up. But education is not absolutely necessary. The women in Bangladesh were illiterate when they reduced their fertility rate so quickly.

    Dr Prada worked in Angola where the birth rate was 5 children per woman. Women want to improve their lives; they want to send their children to school; they want to feed their children. A family planning program will educate to allow women to make the best use of contraception. It is difficult to get contraception on a regular basis. Many want a long-acting injection but all they can get are condoms and pills. Dr. Prada suggests couple counselling before marriage.

    Dr. Adamu: Too many girls get married early. We must delay those marriages. The government must be working on poverty reduction and saving the woman's life. Let us not approach it in terms of 'population control' but more for saving lives. No husband wants his wife to die. Dr. Adamu works with adolescent mothers - some are age 12. They work in peer groups and involve the husbands and mother-in-laws. Giving them information on how to control their reproduction and get health care - and that there is a choice - empowers them and gives them the self-esteem to choose the number and the spacing of their children.

    Dr Potts: If you respect women and give them a choice, they will tend to have fewer children.

    Ryerson: Coercion is a terrible idea. However we must still realize that population is a key threat posing a real threat to human survival. Yet the U.S. Congress tried this year to stop all funding for international family planning.

    Dr Adamu: We have to understand the woman in the village where her respect lies in the number of children she has. There is still the question of how many children will survive, and so she values having many.

    Ryerson: People need to know that children will survive. Infant mortality rates are continuing to come down, but knowledge of that lags. Part of education must include the health of infants and ways they can survive.

    Dr Prada: The desired number of children does come down. Often the number of children a woman has is below the number she said she desired.

    Ryerson: The U.S. is not immune to population problems. It has the third largest population in the world and the highest per capita energy consumption. It promotes endless growth which is not possible. We need a whole new paradime for our economy. doclink

    U.S.: Early, Adequate Prenatal Care Linked to Healthy Birthspacing

       March 1, 2012, Guttmacher Institute

    The findings of a study called "Prenatal Care and Subsequent Birth Intervals," by Julien O. Teitler, "provide strong evidence that earlier and more intensive exposure to prenatal care during a first pregnancy is associated with more optimal spacing and thus, most likely, better fertility control."

    The authors used birth records from New Jersey women who had a first birth between 1996 and 2000, and examined the relationship between the timing and adequacy of prenatal care prior to a woman's first birth and the timing of her second birth. Most women (85%) had initiated prenatal care during the first trimester. However, 12% of women had initiated prenatal care in the second trimester, and 3% in the third; fewer than 1% had had no care. The later prenatal care was initiated, the more likely women were to have had a second birth within 18 months. Additionally, the likelihood of having a second birth soon after the first was greater if women had had inadequate rather than adequate prenatal care.

    The authors suggest that providers should take advantage of their encounters with women who initiate prenatal care later in pregnancy in particular, to ensure that these women receive family planning information and services during their prenatal visits. By doing so, providers could bridge the gap left by funding and service cuts to the family planning program; the potential impact on public health is large. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Childbirth Complications, Maternal and Infant Mortality

    dl516 FOUND 024854 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`B;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 008137 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Children_childrenItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`B ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 032636 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 029911 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 029201 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 029184 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Sustainability_Agriculture`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 029098 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 028624 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 028405 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 027848 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 027831 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 027684 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 027428 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;Countries_Africa`A`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 026020 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    ***ERROR: Docid 025980 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 2
    ***ERROR: Docid 025866 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 3
    dl516 FOUND 025675 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 025528 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 025386 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 025364 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 025143 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Abortion_unsafe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024854 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`B;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024419 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 008137 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Children_childrenItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`B ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024634 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024599 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023909 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023906 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023950 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024423 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024101 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024363 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024386 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024257 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024252 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024151 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 024063 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M;FundingPolitics_news`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023982 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023981 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023938 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023573 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023564 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023532 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023559 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023567 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023563 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021171 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023492 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023429 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023366 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022530 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021966 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021832 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021742 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022711 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 023075 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022712 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022962 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022669 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022672 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022299 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022155 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022114 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022360 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;Countries_NorthAmerica`M;Countries_Asia`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022254 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022215 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022247 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_population`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022106 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022153 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022396 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022427 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021918 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022157 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021170 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021177 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021174 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022072 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021999 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021577 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021578 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021624 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021461 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022035 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022000 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022055 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 022001 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021530 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021604 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021885 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021965 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021636 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021483 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021439 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021348 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021349 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021278 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021255 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021242 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021244 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021245 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 021208 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020541 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020415 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020414 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020576 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020468 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_Water`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020498 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020397 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020761 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020651 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020738 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020742 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020744 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020352 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020377 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019881 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019965 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020226 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020305 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020091 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020097 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020150 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019989 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019994 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 020041 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019775 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;Impacts_disease`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M;HumanImpacts_malnutrtion`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019562 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;FundingPolitics_AbortionIntro`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019771 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019632 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019566 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019034 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018810 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 019036 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018793 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018616 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_new`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018617 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018599 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018747 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018678 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018648 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018647 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018417 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018563 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018394 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018020 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018085 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018054 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 018038 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_povertyHunger`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017849 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017852 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017375 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017485 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017516 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017512 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017441 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;India_progress`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017065 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017253 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017238 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 017147 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 016955 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 016295 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 016302 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 016122 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015947 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014427 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`B;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015876 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Economics_disparityWealth`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015907 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015645 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015620 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;USpopulation_USNews`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015617 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015408 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015494 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_otherIdeas`M;FundingPolitics_philanthropists`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 015180 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014835 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014863 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014862 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014861 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014860 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014885 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009053 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014507 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014089 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 014131 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012465 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013378 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013434 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013433 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013379 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013109 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013110 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013108 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013142 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 013038 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012581 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012497 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012488 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012320 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012248 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012440 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012439 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012465 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012466 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012140 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012141 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 012116 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011833 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011859 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011645 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011662 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Immigration_alternatives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011620 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011635 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011522 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011375 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011388 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011293 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011207 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011246 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Impacts_disease`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 011112 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010719 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;HumanImpacts_news`M;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010713 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010606 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010515 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010345 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010278 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010270 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010180 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010108 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 010088 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009966 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009505 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009510 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009485 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 006424 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 006487 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 003949 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Abortion_new`M;ArchivesMay-Aug2002_item`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 005052 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 005058 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 005147 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 001582 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2002_item`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 008425 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009041 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009045 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009054 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009057 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality
    dl516 FOUND 009058 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality

    Infant Mortality and Birth Rates

      

    It has been shown that providing reproductive health care, lowering the infant mortality rate and the maternal death rate have had a positive correlation to reducing birth rates. In the case of infant mortality, when a women thinks that many of her children will not survive childhood, she wants to have extra children as insurance that she will have enough children. When death rates are high, as in the case of HIV/AIDS, families try to have more children to replace family members who will die, even if the result is a growing population. Women who are given attention in basic health matters begin to see themselves as more than just baby machines, and they gain more respect for their own lives. Then they can look beyond birthing babies and see themselves in other ways: as income-earners, as community workers, as valuable human beings who do not have to produce babies to show their worth. doclink

    Bill Gates - Saving the Lives of Children Reduces Population Growth

       November 2010, Bill Gates at a TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference

    While most of us assume that saving the lives of children will contribute to overpopulation, Gates said the contrary is true. "The key thing, the most important fact that people should know and make sure other people know: As you save children under 5, that is the thing that reduces population growth. That sounds paradoxal. The fact is that within a decade of improving health outcomes, parents decide to have less children."

    "As the world grows from 6 billion to 9 billion, all of that population growth is in urban slums," he said. "Slums is a growing business. It's a very interesting problem."

    He said no matter what we care about-the environment, schools, nutrition, conflict-the issues are insoluble at 3 percent population growth per year. "Nobody can handle that type of situation, so the best thing you can do is avoid those deaths." doclink

    Karen Gaia says: There are people who twist this very concept into accusations that Bill Gates is practicing eugenics with his vaccine. See http://www.voltairenet.org/article164347.html In fact, it has been long known that reducing infant deaths by any means (treating diarrhea, and pneumonia, for example), have made mothers more confident about, and desirous of, having fewer children.

       August 28, 1999, Werner Fornos

    It is well-known that high infant and child mortality in poor countries, where 97% of world population growth occurs, is a principal reason that women in less developed regions give birth to two and three times as many children as do women in industrialized regions.

    Women in poor countries tend to believe that the more children they have, the greater their chances that the number they actually want will survive. It is a tragic commentary on the health risks to infants and children in developing regions, among them: births too closely spaced, air and water pollution, lack of nutritious food and a shortage of medical supplies and personnel. doclink

    Impact of Child Mortality and Fertility Preferences on Fertility Status in Rural Ethiopia

       July 9, 2005, East African Medical Journal

    Child mortality is an overwhelming factor in determining fertility among rural Ethiopian women. According to a study conducted by physicians among over 1100 Ethiopian women, those who were older when they married and had their first child tended to have fewer children.

    Moreover, women who did not lose children in infancy had far lower fertility rates than those who lost one or more children. doclink

    Report Ranks U.S. Last Among Developed Countries for Maternal Health

       May 7, 2015

    An annual report by Save the Children provides a global ranking of the best and worst countries for maternal health and other motherhood-related measures, Time magazine reports. In addition to maternal health, the report considers economics, education, children's well-being, and women's political status.

    Averaging all measures, the U.S. ranked as the 33rd best country for mothers out of 179 surveyed countries, down from 31st the previous year (2014). But on maternal health the U.S. ranked 61st. One per 1,800 U.S. women experience a pregnancy-related death, 10 times the rates for Austria, Belarus and Poland. What's more, U.S. infant mortality (death of baby within the first year) is 6.1 per 1,000 live births. (compare to 2.13 in Japan). Washington, D.C. had the highest infant mortality rate among the 25 surveyed capitals of high-income nations, and some U.S. cities -- including Cleveland and Detroit -- had even higher rates. Time magazine correlated high infant mortality with premature births, inadequate prenatal care, low incomes, education, race, age and marital status. doclink

    Recognize Effective Ways to Save the World's Children

       November 23, 2013, Durango Herald

    Two of my recent columns dealt with child deaths. The sad fact is that, worldwide, 19,000 children die every day - mostly in poor regions, and mostly related to inadequate nutrition.

    The first column (Herald, Aug. 25) told the story of two boys I took care of in Nicaragua when I was in medical school. Miguel hadn't been fed enough protein and recovered with good food. Van was just skin and bones, and died from starvation.

    The second article (Herald, Oct. 27) mentioned that there is hunger in the United States. Our country doesn't have a universal safety net to catch people in need.

    Sending food to poor countries does not help in the long run because it increases people's dependence. Indeed, well-meaning people may do more harm than good. This is made clear (in a religious context) in the book When Helping Hurts. It points out that many actions that might seem helpful have the opposite effect.

    Unfortunately, despite the best of intentions, transferring technology from rich to poor countries can have bad effects. Supplanting breast-feeding with artificial formula is a good example. Contaminated water may be used to mix the formula, and poor parents cannot afford to buy the formula after breast milk has dried up.

    Nepal, where villages had an epidemic of deaths, provides another example of unintended consequences. Metal cookware appeared to be a boon to the Nepalese because food cooked more rapidly than in old-fashioned earthenware pots. This meant less denuding forests for firewood and less smoke from cooking fires. But it also meant that pork wasn't uniformly well-cooked. Pork tapeworms lodged in people's brains and killed them. Fortunately, cooking pork adequately can prevent this disease, cysticercosis. Sanitary toilets are also important in separating human waste from pigs. We must try to foresee and prevent unintended consequences when trying to help others.

    There are many examples of programs that are very effective in reducing child deaths. Brazil, which has experienced a remarkable transformation, is one.

    Nancy Scheper-Hughes first went to a favela (Brazilian shanty town) in 1964 as a Peace Corps volunteer. She is now a professor of medical anthropology. Her article "No More Angel-Babies on the Alto" is available at: http://clas.berkeley.edu/research/brazil-no-more-angel-babies-alto.

    Nancy found that many babies in the favela died, and she was shocked that their mothers didn't grieve their deaths. The average woman gave birth to eight children, of whom almost half died. One woman put it this way: "Why grieve the death of infants who barely landed in this world, who were not even conscious of their existence?"

    When Nancy returned to Brazil recently she was surprised to find that the under-5 death rate in that same city had decreased from 110 to 25 per 1,000. How had this radical drop been achieved? She cites several factors. Brazil's president's wife was a strong advocate for women's rights. They started a system of care for all, including "barefoot doctors" to identify children at risk. The "zero hunger" campaign provides food for the most vulnerable. Safe water supplies and prenatal clinics improved the health of pregnant women. Women's literacy is a universal theme in social change, especially for improving child survival.

    Along with the decrease in child mortality has come an amazing decrease in family size. The average number of children a Brazilian woman will bear is 1.8 - fewer than in the U.S., and less than replacement. Each child born can be expected to live to adulthood and is therefore valued from birth. This favela has gone through the demographic transition in less than 40 years!

    What is the difference between good aid programs and not so good? The best programs tune in to what the local people want rather than imposing agendas that are not culturally sensitive. They are sustainable - meaning that the aid recipients will be motivated to maintain the work with little or no help from donors.

    Back to Nicaragua. People there are still impoverished; it is the second poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with 80 percent living on less than $2 per day. Less than 40 percent of people in rural areas have improved sanitation. Fortunately, the country is receiving sustainable assistance. El Porvenir (a nonprofit organization) partners with rural Nicaraguans to build sanitation and pure water infrastructure and protects the water supply through reforestation. Their school hand-washing facilities make kids healthier and increase school attendance by 20 to 30 percent!

    These improvements have raised the standards of living and health. Better-educated women have healthier and fewer children. Development has helped Nicaraguans in many ways, including reducing the average number of children a woman has from seven when we visited in 1968 to just 2.6 now.

    Note: this article was first published in the Durango Herald doclink

    Kenya's Maternal Death Rate May Fall Thanks to Free Services for Women

       July 15, 2013, Vietnam News Agency   By: Katy Migiro

    Last month Kenya began offering free maternity services for women, and some hospitals report a 50% increase in deliveries. A 10% increase was estimated around the country. However Kenya will not meet the MDG of a 75% drop in deaths between 1990 and 2015. Giving birth with the help of a trained professional is critical for reducing maternal mortality, but 56% of Kenyan women give birth at home. 42% reported that services were too far away or there was no transport, 20% said it was unnecessary, 19% said that their labour was too quick to have time to get there, and 17% said services were too expensive.

    Wambui Waithaka, a doctor at Nairobi's Pumwani maternity hospital said the government is giving the hospital extra money each week to buy the things they need to treat patients. However, in Pumwani, there is a shortage of incubators.

    The next step is to educate women about their care. "The most critical thing in improving maternal health is educating the woman herself and the community around her," said Waithaka. "If she doesn't know that her labour is going a dangerous way, we are not going anywhere."

    Almost 28% of women give birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, the same percentage as are helped by a nurse or midwife. The region where the use of traditional birth attendants is highest - at 64% also has the highest maternal mortality rate, twice the national average.

    In Kenya, 43% of pregnancies are unwanted due to limited access to contraceptives, poverty and high rates of sexual violence. Unsafe abortions account for 35% of maternal deaths compared to the global average of 13%. Rich women easily access safe abortion in private facilities. But the poor and uneducated risk their lives using backstreet doctors as government hospitals are reluctant to treat them.

    A high proportion of maternal deaths are among adolescents. Shahnaz Sharif, the government's director of public health and sanitation said. "They tend to hide their pregnancies. They don't come to the clinic," ... "Or they'll go for abortion." Teenagers also tend to have more complications because their bodies and minds are not ready to give birth. doclink

    3 Unexpected Ways to Improve Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

       July 31, 2013, World Resources Institute - WRI   By: Tim Searchinger and Craig Hanson

    Sub-Saharan Africa would need to increase crop production by 260% by 2050 in order to feed its projected population.

    The UNs' new population growth projections say that the world will reach nearly 9.6 billion by 2050. Unless we control dietary shifts to more meat and reduce food loss and waste, the world will need to produce about 70% more food by 2050 to meet global demands. Plus we would need to do this without converting millions more hectares of forests into farmland if we don't wish to contribute to more climate change.

    The population of Sub Saharan Africa is expected to more than double by 2050 and quadruple to 3.9 billion people by 2100. Even today FAO says that over 25% of Sub-Saharan Africa's people are undernourished, and the region already imports roughly 20%of its staple calories. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa has the world's lowest grain yields and extensive areas of degraded soils.

    One way to help meet the food challenge would be to hold down population growth.

    Most of the world's regions have already achieved or are close to replacement level fertility, but Sub-Saharan Africa has a total fertility rate was 5.4 children per woman - double the fertility rate of any other region. While the regions fertility rate is projected to decline to 3.2 by 2050, this is not enough to avoid the large projections of population growth.

    Go to the link in the headline to see the interactive maps.

    What can be done?

    *Increase educational opportunities for girls. In general, the longer girls stay in school, the later they start bearing children, and the fewer children they ultimately have. In countries where 80-100% of the women have attained at least a lower secondary education level, total fertility rates are around 2.1

    *Increase access to reproductive health services, including family planning. Millions of women want to space and limit their births, but do not have adequate access to reproductive health services. The World Health Organization (WHO) found that 53% of women in Africa who wish to control their fertility lack access to birth control, compared with 21-22 percent in Asia and Latin America.

    *Reduce infant and child mortality. Reducing infant and child mortality assures parents that they do not need to conceive a high number of children in order to assure survival of a desired number. Better health care, sanitation, and food will accomplish this.

    Botswana has a country-wide, free system of health facilities that integrates maternal and child healthcare, family planning, and HIV/AIDS services. Mortality rates for children under five declined from 81 per 1,000 in 2000 to 26 per 1,000 in 2011. Contraceptive use increased from 28% in 1984 to 53% in 2007. Botswana has long provided free education to all, and still exempts the poorest from school fees, resulting in an 85% literacy rate and a rate of 88% of girls enrolled in lower secondary education. Botswana's fertility rate has fallen from 6.1 in 1981 to 2.8 by 2010.

    Advantages to achieving replacement level fertility in Sub Saharan Africa:

    *Gender equity will be advanced, giving people more control over life decisions, and save millions of lives.

    *About 9% of the gap between food available in 2006 and the amount needed in 2050 would be closed and and the projected growth in food demand in Sub-Saharan Africa would be reduced by 25% in the same period.

    *A "demographic dividend" could be achieved. During and after a rapid decline in fertility, a country simultaneously has fewer children to care for and a greater share of its population in the most economically productive age bracket. Researchers estimate that this type of demographic shift was responsible for up to one third of the economic growth of the East Asian "Tigers" between 1965 and 1990.

    *Agriculture's impact on the environment would be reduced since, according to FAO projections for yield gains in the region, Sub-Saharan Africa will need to add more than 125 million hectares of cropland from 2006 levels to meet the region's projected food needs in 2050. Achieving replacement level fertility would cut that needed cropland expansion in half, sparing from conversion an area of forest and savannah equivalent to the size of Germany. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2 3 4

    Maternal, Infant, and Child Health Care

    dl516 FOUND 033120 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 032856 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 032215 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 032171 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 031799 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 031663 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 031573 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 031309 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 030667 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 030589 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 030154 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 029985 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 029925 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 029683 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 029678 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 029494 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 029274 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 029187 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 028390 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_USNews`M`;California_pregnancyPrevention`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 028296 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027933 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;India_progress`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027841 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027835 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027838 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;Abortion_unsafe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027739 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027633 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027333 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027062 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;India_familyPlanning`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027091 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 027019 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 026537 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025918 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025914 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025668 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025624 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025619 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025445 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;FundingPolitics_philanthropists`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025285 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025369 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 025323 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024429 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024555 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024705 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024529 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024362 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024374 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024326 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024284 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024242 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024182 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024176 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 024150 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023814 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023523 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023525 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023502 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023473 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023570 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023598 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023557 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023377 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 023356 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021166 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021928 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 022570 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 020875 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 022429 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021364 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 022280 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021723 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021275 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021358 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021246 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 020899 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 020529 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 020532 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 021083 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 020757 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019821 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019801 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019963 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 020223 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019890 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 020013 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_new`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019718 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019809 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019382 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019130 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019026 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019146 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019517 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018832 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019062 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018800 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019046 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 019060 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018748 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018884 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018739 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018892 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018868 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018618 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018673 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018393 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018492 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018318 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018086 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 018330 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 017812 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 017761 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 017216 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016791 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016540 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;FundingPolitics_RelatedFPforeignAid`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016550 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016660 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016405 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Abortion_unsafe`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016409 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016299 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016433 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016192 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016278 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Impacts_disease`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;HumanImpacts_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016338 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016217 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 016117 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;HumanImpacts_floodingDisasters`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 015938 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 015664 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 015312 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_povertyHunger`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 014415 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;FundingPolitics_philanthropists`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 014014 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 014890 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 014352 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013857 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 014318 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 011209 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;India_archives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013070 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013756 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013725 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Impacts_disease`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013627 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Economics_disparityWealth`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013340 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013057 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013402 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013359 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013025 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013074 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013068 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 013070 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012991 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012793 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012585 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;EducationalMaterials_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012496 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012544 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_povertyHunger`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012463 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012280 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012077 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012165 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012166 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 012147 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 011209 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;India_archives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 011249 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 010938 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 010773 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 010795 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 010727 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    ***ERROR: Docid 010600 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 4
    dl516 FOUND 010603 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 010493 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 009520 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006483 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006338 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006427 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006557 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006522 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 008381 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 008382 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 008400 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;Children_childrenItem`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006336 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Conflict_news`M;ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006412 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006380 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006510 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006583 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Test_testItem`M;ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006519 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006675 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsScan2_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006663 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsScan2_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 006916 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsScan2_NewsItem`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 007633 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 007643 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 007815 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 004879 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_healthCare` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 009055 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 009059 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 009061 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 032104 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare
    dl516 FOUND 030908 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_healthCare ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_healthCare

    Publicly Funded Family Planning Services in the United States

       July 2015, Guttmacher Institute

    The typical American woman, who wants two children, spends close to three years pregnant, postpartum or trying to become pregnant, and 30 years trying to avoid pregnancy.

    50% of all pregnancies in the United States each year -- over 3m -- are unintended. By age 45, more than 50% of all American women will have experienced an unintended pregnancy, and 30% will have had an abortion.

    Of the 67 million U.S. women of reproductive age (13-44) in 2013, 38m of these women were sexually active and able to become pregnant, but were not pregnant and did not wish to become pregnant and thus they were in need of contraceptive care. 20m of these were below 250% of the federal poverty level and in need of publicly funded services and supplies or they were younger than 20 and in need of publicly funded services and supplies. 77% were low-income adults, and 23% were younger than 20. 9.8 million were non-Hispanic white, 3.6 million were non-Hispanic black and 4.9 million were Hispanic.

    The need for publicly funded services grew 17% between 2000 and 2010. With inflation is taken into account, public funding for family planning client services increased 31% from FY 1980 to FY 2010.

    Public expenditures for family planning services totaled $2.37 billion in FY 2010, with Medicaid accounting for 75%, state appropriations 12%, and Title X 10%.

    The joint federal-state Medicaid program reimburses providers for contraceptive and related services delivered to enrolled individuals. The federal government pays 90% of the cost of these services.

    Title X of the Public Health Service Act, the only federal program devoted specifically to supporting family planning services, subsidizes services for women and men who do not meet the narrow eligibility requirements for Medicaid, maintains the national network of family planning centers and sets the standards for the provision of family planning services.

    More than half of centers (57%) report that they are unable to stock certain contraceptive methods due to cost.

    The availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods increased significantly between 2003 and 2010. IUD provision increased from 57% to 63%, and the implant, which was unavailable in 2003, was offered by 39% of centers in 2010

    Centers with a reproductive health focus offer a greater range of contraceptive methods on site and are more likely to have protocols that help clients initiate and continue using methods, compared with those that focus on primary care

    Virtually all safety-net health centers provide pregnancy testing, and the vast majority offer STI testing (97%) and treatment (95%), HIV testing (92%) and HPV vaccinations (87%).

    More than six in 10 women who obtained care at a publicly funded center that provides contraceptive services in 2006-2010 considered the center their usual source of medical care

    In 2013, publicly funded family planning services helped women to avoid 2 million unintended pregnancies, which would have resulted in about 1 million unintended births and nearly 700,000 abortions. Without these services, the number of unintended pregnancies, unplanned births and abortions occurring in the United States would have been 60% higher.

    The services provided at publicly funded family planning visits in 2010 resulted in a net savings to the federal and state governments of $13.6 billion. The services provided at Title X-supported centers alone accounted for $7.0 billion of that total. Every $1.00 invested in publicly funded family planning services saved $7.09 in Medicaid and other public expenditures that otherwise would have been needed.

    There is much more to this report. Follow the link in the headline to read it. doclink

    U.S.: Calif. Assembly Passes Bill Making Pregnancy a Qualifying Event for Insurance Enrollment

       June 8, 2015, National Partnership for Women and Families

    The California Assembly approved a bill (AB 1102) that would make pregnancy a qualifying event to purchase health coverage through California's insurance marketplace (under the Affordable Care Act) outside of the exchange's open enrollment period. The bill would require insurers to allow individuals who do not have minimum essential coverage to enroll or change their health plan when they become pregnant.

    The proposal now proceeds to the state Senate for consideration (AP/Sacramento Bee, 6/4).

    The measure would take effect in 2017 doclink

    Karen Gaia says: Health care for pregnant women is a good way to ensure the health of mother and infant, and a time to introduce effective and affordable methods for birth spacing needed for the health of future babies as well as the health and well-being of the mother and family. When these birth methods are started, it is likely they will be used throughout a woman's child-bearing years so that she can have children when she is ready, emotionally, financially, and for the good of her family.

    Publicly Funded Family Planning Yields Numerous Positive Health Outcomes While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Three New Resources Make the Case for Investing in These Services
       January 16, 2015, Guttmacher Institute

    In "Beyond Preventing Unplanned Pregnancy: The Broader Benefits of Publicly Funded Family Planning Services," the Guttmacher Institute's Senior Public Policy Associate Adam Sonfield provides research findings which prove that, by reducing unintended pregnancies, abortions, disease, and pre-term or low-birth-weight births, public investment in family planning can save taxpayers billions of dollars. In October, the Institute reported on the following benefits of services provided by publicly funded family planning centers in 2010 -- the most recent year for which comprehensive data are available:

    • Contraceptive care helped women avert 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, 1.1 million unplanned births, 761,000 abortions and 164,000 preterm or low-birth-weight births.

    • STI testing averted 99,000 chlamydia infections, 16,000 gonorrhea infections, 410 HIV infections, 1,100 ectopic pregnancies and 2,200 cases of infertility.

    • Pap and HPV testing and HPV vaccination prevented 3,700 cases of cervical cancer and 2,100 cervical cancer deaths.

    Congress and the President should not ignore these benefits when they set their priorities for the next two years. All told, the net public savings was $13.6 billion, or $7.09 saved for every public dollar spent. Congress must protect the Title X national family planning program and the national network of safety-net family planning centers while protecting and expanding Medicaid coverage of family planning; and breaking down barriers that deny people services

    A series of fact sheets titled Facts on Publicly Funded Family Planning Services covers each state and the District of Columbia. They provide state-level policymakers, advocates, and providers with data and graphics showing the need for publicly funded family planning; the services provided by safety-net family planning centers, including those funded by Title X; the range of health benefits accrued from these services; and the costs and public savings associated with their provision.

    The Institute also offers Health Benefits and Cost Savings of Publicly Funded Family Planning. This tool enables family planning centers and other end users to estimate the impact of and cost-savings resulting from publicly funded family planning services in their state or service area. It estimates by state the number of contraceptive clients served and the number of STI and cervical cancer screening tests. This data can help family planning providers looking to contract with Medicaid and private health plans, and advocates and policymakers looking to defend and expand public investment in family planning services.

    The full analysis, "Return on Investment: A Fuller Assessment of the Benefits and Cost Savings of the US Publicly Funded Family Planning Program," by Jennifer J. Frost, Adam Sonfield, Mia R. Zolna and Lawrence B. Finer, is currently available online and appears in the December 2014 issue of The Milbank Quarterly. doclink

    U.S.: Is Inequality Killing US Mothers?

       January 16, 2015, Truthout.org   By: Andrea Flynn

    It is no surprise that maternal mortality rates (MMRs) have risen in tandem with poverty rates. Women living in the lowest-income areas in the United States are twice as likely to suffer maternal death, and states with high rates of poverty have MMRs 77% higher than states with fewer residents living below the federal poverty level. Black women are three to four times as likely to die from pregnancy-related causes as white women, and in some U.S. cities the MMR among Black women is higher than in some sub-Saharan African countries.

    In terms of economic inequality it might as well be 1929, the last time the United States experienced such an extraordinary gulf between the rich and everyone else. Today 30% of Blacks, 25% of Hispanics (compared to only 10% of whites) live in poverty, and in certain states those percentages are even higher. Since 2008, the net worth of the poorest Americans has decreased and stagnant wages and increased debt has driven more middle class families into poverty. Meanwhile, the wealthiest Americans have enjoyed remarkable gains in wealth and income.

    The Affordable Care Act is providing much-needed health coverage to many poor women for whom it was previously out of reach and if fully implemented could certainly help stem maternal deaths. But nearly 60% of uninsured Black Americans who should qualify for Medicaid live in states that are not participating in Medicaid expansion. doclink

    U.S.: Where Immigration and Healthcare Meet

       November 19, 2014, Hill   By: Shivana Jorawar

    Open enrollment for the Affordable Care began for a second time last week. The number of people who take advantage of the ACA this time around is projected to be low. 9.1 million people are expected to enroll by the end of the enrollment period in February, just 1.8 million more than the number enrolled in August.

    But unfortunately there has been little talk among government officials and healthcare advocates about the people locked out of healthcare because of their immigration status.

    More than 10 million people have gained access to health insurance since it Obamacare began. Insurance companies can no longer discriminate against people based on a preexisting condition or charge more because of gender, and they are now required to cover prevention and wellness benefits at no charge.

    112,000 people lost their ACA coverage this year because they did not verify their eligibility based on citizenship and immigration status. More than 11 million people living in the United States are ineligible for the ACA at the national level due to their immigration status.

    550,000 of them are young people, often called "Dreamers," who came to the United States as children and are, at present, lawfully residing here. These Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program recipients, who have been given reprieve from deportation, were explicitly carved out of the ACA through announcements made by CMS and HHS on Aug. 28, 2012, issued as federal regulations and guidance. The announcement altered federal rules for DACA-eligible people by excluding them from health insurance options available to others with deferred action status.

    Immigrants work, pay taxes, and contribute to our communities and our economy. They should have the same responsibilities and opportunity to participate in health care as their friends and neighbors. Further, it's better and more affordable for all of us when immigrants can participate in the health care system their tax dollars support. Affordable health coverage improves access to preventive care, protects public health, prevents suffering, and puts less strain on under-resourced and costly emergency services. The impact of the large number of uninsured on our economy is huge. It results in a loss of $65 billion to $130 billion annually, consisting of lost wages, absenteeism, and family leave. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: and the failure to cover contraception for everyone of reproductive age results in more unintended pregnancies, a higher fertility rate, and a high population growth rate.

    The Case for Advancing Access to Health Coverage and Care for Immigrant Women and Families

       November 19, 2014, Health Affairs Blog   By: Kinsey Hasstedt

    Many lawfully present immigrants are ineligible for coverage through Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program during their first five years of legal residency. Undocumented immigrants are largely barred from public coverage, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) prohibits them from purchasing any coverage, subsidized or not, through its health insurance marketplaces.

    In 2012, the administration created the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program, enabling many so-called DREAMers to lawfully remain in the United States. Unfortunately those with DACA status are essentially treated as if they were undocumented and expressly carved out of nearly all public and private health coverage and affordability programs. Also, the immigration reform bill passed by the Senate in 2013 failed for the most part to address the legitimate health insurance and health care needs of immigrants, denying those eligible for provisional status access to public coverage and the ACA's subsidies.

    Among women of reproductive age (15-44), 40% of the 6.6 million noncitizen immigrants are uninsured, compared with 18% of naturalized citizens and 15% of U.S.-born women.

    Of reproductive-age women living below the poverty level (a group in which immigrant women are overrepresented), 53% percent of noncitizen immigrant women lack health insurance -- about double the percentage of U.S.-born women. Further, only 28% of poor noncitizen women of reproductive age have Medicaid coverage, compared with 46% of those born in the United States.

    Only half (52%) of immigrant women at risk for unintended pregnancy received contraceptive care, compared with two-thirds (65%) of U.S.-born women.

    Consistent contraceptive use is critical to helping women prevent unintended pregnancies, plan and space wanted pregnancies, and achieve their own educational, employment, and financial goals. Without coverage, immigrant women and couples may well be unable to afford the method of contraception that will work best for them, which is critical to realizing these benefits.

    In addition, preventive sexual and reproductive health services are effective in helping women and couples avoid cervical cancer, HIV and other STIs, infertility, and preterm and low-birth-weight births -- all while saving substantial public dollars. Notably, cervical cancer disproportionately afflicts and causes deaths among immigrant women, particularly Latinas and women in certain Asian communities, likely because many go without timely screenings. doclink

    A Closer Look: Myanmar

       November 5, 2014, Family Planning 2020

    The Myanmar Family Planning Best Practices Conference met this summer in the new capital of Myanmar: Nay Pyi Taw.

    Everything from condom cue cards for teenagers to the finer points of IUD insertion and removal was discussed. Local OB/GYNs compared notes with technical advisors from global NGOs.

    After decades of international isolation, Myanmar is rejoining the world community and embarking on modern development goals. Myanmar made a bold commitment to family planning at the 2013 International Conference on Family Planning in Addis Ababa, where country representatives vowed to halve unmet need for contraception by 2020 and to raise the contraceptive prevalence rate to 60%.

    Myanmar's budget for contraceptive commodities was increased from US$1.29 million in 2012/2013 to US $3.27 million in 2013/2014. The government has begun efforts to strengthen supply chains and improve service delivery. Health providers are being trained in a greater range of contraceptive methods: state obstetricians and gynecologists are being trained in IUDs, and doctors in private networks are learning about contraceptive implants.

    The Ministry of Health hosted the event, welcoming representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), UNFPA, the Gates Institute, Stanford University, the Government of Indonesia, and Pathfinder.

    The announcement of our commitment to FP2020 was an occasion of great hope for Myanmar. Access to contraception is the fundamental right of every woman and community, and we aim to expand family planning services to reach all who need and want them. This journey will not be easy, but thanks to FP2020, we have many partners around the world to help us on our way. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: I repeat: I don't understand the recent emphasis on family planning in Myanmar. Their fertility rate is only 2.18. The country already has a health plan. See https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bm.html

    States with More Abortion Laws Have Less Support for Women and Children's Health

       October 1, 2014, Huffington Post   By: Laura Bassett

    A study by Ibis Reproductive Health and the Center for Reproductive Rights found that a state's performance on indicators for women and children's health and well-being is inversely proportional to the amount of anti-abortion laws in that state. States with mandatory ultrasound laws, mandatory waiting periods and shorter gestational limits on abortion, for example, generally have higher rates of obesity, child and maternal mortality, teen births and women and children without health insurance.

    States enacted more abortion restrictions between 2011 and 2013 than they had in the entire previous decade, and more than 250 anti-abortion bills have been introduced in state legislatures this year alone. These include mandatory waiting periods, counseling and ultrasounds before abortions, harsh building standards for abortion clinics, insurance coverage restrictions, gestational limits and restrictions on non-surgical medication abortions.

    Most states with more than 10 abortion restrictions in effect, including Mississippi, Oklahoma, Arizona, Indiana, Florida, Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri and Texas, scored near the bottom.

    The report considered a wide variety of indicators of well-being for women and children, such as asthma prevalence, the percentage of adult women who had received a pap smear in the past three years, drug abuse, HIV and domestic violence incidence, maternal and infant mortality rates, children receiving dental and mental health care, high school graduation rates and the number of suicide deaths among women. The report also considered policies that support women and children's health, such as whether a state had moved forward with Medicaid expansion, requires reasonable accommodations for pregnant workers and implements strong family and medical leave policies.

    "This report exposes the flimsy claims of politicians who have been shutting down women's health care providers under the patently false pretext of protecting women's health," said Nancy Northup, president and CEO at the Center for Reproductive Rights. "It clearly demonstrates how women and families have suffered as politicians put their ideological agenda before the real needs of their constituents." doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2 3

    Reproductive Choice

    dl516 FOUND 032862 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 031347 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;PopulationControl_TargetsIncentives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 030909 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 030190 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;M`M;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 029576 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M`;FundingPolitics_Contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 029132 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 029196 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 029100 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 028382 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M`;Abortion_unsafe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 028306 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_Controlling`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 028300 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 028222 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 027982 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 027334 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;USpopulation_politics`A`;WhatWorks_choice`A`;Abortion_politics`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 026752 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 026234 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_choice`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 023905 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 024293 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 024266 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 024260 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 024229 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 024216 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs Mexico_sustainability`M;Mexico_familyPlanning`M;Impacts_GlobalWarmingItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Grassroots_presentations`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 023999 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_FundingPolitics`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 023572 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 023107 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_bestWay`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 021876 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 022570 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 022607 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 022618 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 022425 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 021661 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 020527 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;BirthControl_condomsSTDsIntro`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 019716 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 018565 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 016361 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 015300 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 009040 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 008445 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 009474 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`;India_archives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 013747 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 009486 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 009474 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`;India_archives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 006484 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 004975 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 004695 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 003986 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 003963 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 005687 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_choice` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 006399 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs Abortion_new`M;ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_choice` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 009042 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 031629 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;PopulationControl_TargetsIncentives`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice
    dl516 FOUND 033016 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_choice ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;HowToHelp_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_choice

    Decisions about Sexual Activity

       October 2, 2000, New York Times*

    The new annual report of the UNFPA says "If women had the power to make decisions about sexual activity and its consequences," ... "they could avoid many of the 80 million unwanted pregnancies each year, 20 million unsafe abortions, some 750,000 maternal deaths and many times that number of infections and injuries." And: "They could also avoid many of the 333 million sexually transmitted infections contracted each year." doclink

       October 2003, UNFPA

    Meeting the need for contraception services could reduce maternal mortality by 20%. doclink

    I Love My IUD

       July 15, 2015, Women At the Center

    doclink

    U.S.: Birth Control for Beginners: What's Preventing Women From Getting Access to the Full Range of Contraceptive Options?

    Long-acting contraceptives get left out of the conversation, in favor of methods with a higher human-error factor
       June 28, 2015, Salon   By: Valerie Tarico

    Birth control is a big deal for couples who would rather avoid an abortion or another baby.

    From 2011 to 2013, Planned Parenthood and the Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) conducted a study with a goal to ensure that women get full information about all available birth control methods and that they can get the method of their choice in the same visit.

    In 20 Planned Parenthood affiliate clinics participating in the study, the entire staff, including receptionists, counselors and doctors, received a half-day training on how to provide excellent access to IUDs and implants. Twenty other clinics continued business as usual.

    In the 20 clinics that received the training, 71% of providers discussed IUDs and implants with their patients, and 28% of the women receiving the additional information chose IUDs or implants. In the control group only 39% of providers discussed IUDs and implants with their patient and only 17% of the women chose IUDs or implants. In both settings 99% of women felt that the decision was theirs, meaning that providers maintained respect for patient autonomy and choices. In the year following, the rate of pregnancy among patients seeking contraception in the intervention clinics was half what it was in the control clinics.

    On the pill, nearly 1 in 10 women gets pregnant each year, and for couples relying on condoms that number is 1 in 6! With the rhythm method or abstinence or no protection at all the annual pregnancy rate was over 8 in 10.

    By contrast, for state-of-the-art IUDs and contraceptive implants the annual pregnancy rate is below 1 in 500. With every-day and every-time methods things like forgetting, fights, finances and fumbling - make it virtually impossible for couples to use pills, condoms or intermittent abstinence with perfect consistency; and the more chaotic a person's life, the more likely he or she will end up facing a surprise pregnancy.

    Hormone-free copper IUDs, hormonal IUDs and implants are long-acting reversible birth control methods that can be reversed. They can last from three to 10+ years; but a quick, easy removal restores normal fertility at any point.

    Currently only 7.2% of women used a long-acting contraceptive in the U.S. from 2011-2013. IUDs and implants are rapidly gaining popularity, thanks in part to Obamacare, which eliminates high upfront cost as a barrier.

    In the 1970s, a defective IUD traumatized women and providers alike. Today modern IUDs are the healthiest method available for most women. In the U.S. and Canada there is a dismaying level of misinformation about IUDs and implants among doctors. According to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, most young people between the ages of 18 and 29 said they had never heard of the implant.

    Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis provided comprehensive information and then offered 9,000 women and youth the birth control of their choice for free. Three-quarters chose a state-of-the-art IUD or implant, and the rate of teen pregnancy and abortion plummeted.

    Upstream USA was launched by Peter Belden and Mark Edwards in 2014 to provide expanded on-site training and technical assistance so that many health centers across the country can offer their patients the full range of contraceptive methods including implants and IUDs. A woman can receive any family planning method she wants on the day she walks into the clinic.

    Helping young women achieve their own goals and become pregnant only when they want to is central to improving high school graduation rates (82% of pregnancies to teens are unintended). A Gates Foundation survey found that 47% of girls who dropped out of high school listed pregnancy as a reason. Unintended pregnancy is a significant issue affecting community college completion. The intervention in the UCSF study cut the pregnancy rate in half.

    The training model draws on evidence-based "best practices" from across the country:

    The "One Key Question" integrates family planning into routine medical care and medical records by prompting doctors during routine medical care to annually ask all female patients, "Would you like to get pregnant in the next year?" and providing counseling about either pre-conception care or pregnancy prevention.

    Streamlined same day service as recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ensures that busy women don't face the scheduling, travel and childcare obstacles that have prevented many in the past from getting IUD's.

    Including removal costs in the insertion fee ensures that no woman will get a LARC and then face a financial barrier to getting it removed when she is ready.

    Unless all methods are available to all women, improvements in contraception may worsen America's growing economic divide. Mark Edwards says: "Women should be able to achieve their own goals and become pregnant only when they want to. It is unconscionable that women are not offered the very best care, no matter how they enter the healthcare system." doclink

    U.S.: I Am the Population Problem

       September 27, 2011, Grist   By: Lisa Hymas

    Note: see my comment below

    People see the population problem as Africans and Asians who have "more kids than they can feed, immigrants with large families, and even single mothers. But actually the population problem includes middle-class Americans like me - those most likely to say "I'm the sort of person who should have kids."

    People harm the environment by what they consume. My U.S. carbon footprint exceeds that of an average Brit by 100%, an average Indian by over 1,200%, and an average Ethiopian by over 10,000%. A poor Ugandan child may challenge its family and community to provide clean water and safe food, but its impact on the global environment does not compare to that of an American child. American's have big houses; drive big cars; use lots of oil, coal and gas; and consume many products that require non-replenishable or overused resources, long-distance shipping, pesticides, etc. We Americans consume resources from around the globe, then expel them as pollution.

    In 2009, a study from Oregon State University found that the climate impact of having one less child in America is almost 20 times [5.7 times ??] greater than the impact of adopting a series of eco-friendly practices for a lifetime, things like driving a high-mileage car, recycling, and using efficient appliances and CFLs. Since even our most conscientious citizens consume at unsustainable rates, the best contribution I can make to a cleaner environment is to not have children who might, in turn, go on to have more children.

    I don't fault those who do have kids, but it should be easier for people to choose not to have kids if they wish. The Pill has been available for more than 50 years, and most people accept that women can use it to delay, space out, or limit childbearing. But a pro-natal bias runs deep. At some point, family, friends, coworkers, and even strangers push you toward having at least one child. They pester women in their thirties about the regrets they will have if they have no children. Even people I know whose careers are dedicated to making birth control and reproductive health care available to all women do this!

    U.S. women find that doctors will not do tubal ligations on a woman who has not already had children (and sometimes even if she has). They warn that sterilization is an irreversible, life-altering decision - as if having a child is not an irreversible, life-altering decision. This prejudice in the medical profession and the rest of society implies that all women should have children - even single women, gay couples, and women over 40. Going child-free may be the strongest remaining taboo.

    I am the population problem, but I want to be part of the solution. Let's make it easier for others to join me. Putting less pressure on those who decline to have kids reduces the stigma on people who wish to have kids but don't get the chance, it also means fewer ambivalent or unhappy parents, and it gets us closer to the goal of "every child a wanted child." Having no children allows a little more breathing room for those of us who are already here or on the way. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: 50% of pregnancies in the U.S. are unintended. The pill is not the most effective form of birth control. It is about 5 times less effective than the IUD or implant. Many women are unnecessarily wary of the IUD, due to inaccurate information. Many doctors are unnecessarily reluctant to give the IUD if a woman has no children, even though the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has recently recommended the IUD as a first contraception for teens. These things can be fixed!! Not all women chose to be childless. Such women may spend many years trying not to get pregnant, but if she is on the pill, an 'oops' baby is a strong possibility; then, if she is unmarried, she may wait until she has a husband and perhaps another child before getting herself sterilized.

    I believe the study said a child has 5.7 times the impact, not 20. Even so, that is a lot!

    Art says: Both the author and editor chose to have no children. At 70, this editor has no regrets. There are plenty of children, but not enough good parents. I work with kids and later married into a family with kids. One can be a good parent and mentor without having children.

    These Are the Birth Control Methods Family Planning Doctors Use

       May 19, 2014, Huffington Post   By: Rachael Rettner

    A survey of female family planning providers found that obstetricians, gynecologists, midwives and nurses are seven times more likely than other women to choose IUDs (intrauterine devices) for their own use. Of about 550 family planning providers surveyed, 335 used contraception and, compared to only 6% of women in the general population, 42% of that group used a long-acting method of birth control (40% used IUDs, and 2% used implants that release hormones to prevent pregnancy). Just 12% used the pill, compared with 21% of women in the general population.

    Another 2012 poll of just female obstetricians and gynecologists found that these doctors are three times more likely than the general public to use IUDs.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention claims that less than 1% of women who use IUDs and implants become pregnant each year, making these devices among the most effective forms of birth control. About 9% of women using pills become pregnant each year largely because they don't always take them as directed every day. About 18% of condom users become pregnant each year.

    Dr. Jill Rabin of the Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, New York said the new findings make sense because health care providers tend to use the best available methods of care and have the fewest barriers to access. Researcher Dr. Ashlesha Patel, System Director of Family Planning at Cook County Health & Hospital System in Chicago, referred to family planning providers as "theoretically, the most educated group of people in this arena who would choose the most effective birth control methods." In addition to knowing more about birth control, family planning providers may have better access to long-acting birth control methods. What's more, Patel said, some doctors are not comfortable with the procedures for inserting the devices (which requires some expertise) so women who see these doctors may get birth control pills or patches instead of IUDs or implants.

    The Affordable Care Act covers long-acting birth control, but that coverage is not yet in place for all women, Patel said. So cost may still be a barrier for some. Planned Parenthood estimates that if an IUD is not covered by insurance, women must pay between $500 and $1,000.

    In a study where 2,500 women were told about long-acting birth control methods and offered them free, about two-thirds chose to use them. Dr. Rabin said, "This finding speaks to the need for greater educational effort and the reduction of the barrier of costs in so far as possible, if we are serious about reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy." doclink

    Transformation Doesn't Happen Over Night

       January 27, 2014, Population Action International

    Since the 2012 London Summit, the concept of reproductive rights has begun to permeate family planning commitments and implementation plans. These rights apply as much to the freedom to choose appropriate contraceptive options as the freedom to use or not use contraceptives, and they should emerge from citizen and community discussions, rather than by official policy decree.

    Of the 28 developing countries that made FP2020 commitments, 15 made specific references to improving choice, expanding the range of methods, or reproductive rights. Having committed to a rights-based approach to family planning and reproductive health, these nations may now need assistance in fulfilling their pledges. The commitments stress voluntarism, informed choice and diversifying the mix of family planning methods. To exercise their rights, people need clear information and quality services, which includes the ability to freely choose among a range of methods. Programs must offer these options to meet the needs of women at all stages-pre-conception, postpartum and post-abortion. For example, women's reproductive rights are fulfilled when, 1) Providers are trained to provide implants and IUDs so that women can select a long-acting method. 2) After abortions, women can freely choose an effective, modern method of family planning as a result of quality, family planning counseling, and 3) a couple can choose gender based contraceptive methods because their health facility stocks a full range of options. Eight nations specifically mention offering the full range of contraceptive methods as part of their FP2020 commitments.

    The commitments of South Africa, the Philippines, and Myanmar specifically refer to reproductive or human rights. They will need monitoring and support to translate these commitments into action. But to ensure success, the commitments and implementation plans must be their own. Nations with limited experience may not know how to proceed. They must learn to prioritize their objectives and ensure active community participation.

    Those who call for rights-based family planning programs and policies must realize that each nation is starting from a different point and has different needs. Some may not yet appreciate the vital role that informed choice and voluntarism play in making programs successful. Supporting programs can best help nations meet their commitments by offering tools to help. We should try to make the current set of frameworks and guidance documents for policymakers, civil society organizations, and program designers and implementers more useful and practical.

    In short, we need to provide the support needed to ensure that each nation: 1) Embraces a comprehensive approach to rights-based family planning 2) Prioritizes the need to offer a selection of options 3) Has the training and equipment required to fulfill its pledges. doclink

    Art says: As used here, choice and rights refer largely to the community owning the program. An imposed program will not succeed as well as one that involves community leaders in planning and implementation.

    Karen Gaia says: While it is important that communities are involved in the planning of family planning programs, it is even more important that the individual or couple who are planning their family have choice and rights.

    The Long-term, Extremely Positive Effects of Birth Control in America

       October 7, 2013, Business Insider   By: Max Nisen

    According to University of Michigan economist Martha Bailey, many family and social benefits have occurred since birth control was legalized and made more readily accessible. Enabling people to control whether and when to have children helped to facilitate upward mobility for both parents and their children. Birth control usage seemed to improve college completion rates, job quality, wages, the ability of women to work, and family investment in children. Bailey also claimed that birth control allows people to delay marriage, perhaps due to fewer "shotgun" weddings. This, she says, allows for better marriage choices.

    In effect, family planning can reduce poverty rates. Since delaying parenthood allows women to work and parents to train for better jobs, family incomes improve. And, when parents have fewer unwanted or "ill-timed" children, they have more time and resources to spend on each child. Bailey charted these improvements statistically. As contraception became more common, adults improved their incomes by 2 - 3%, and their children were 2 -7% more likely to complete college. Nisen concluded, "When people are able to delay having children and have fewer of them, they tend to be more financially secure and better able to help their children succeed."

    When birth control pills were first introduced, only some of the states legalized their use, and states where "the pill" was legal had far lower fertility rates. But after the Supreme Court case Griswold vs. Connecticut prevented any state from restricting contraceptive sales, lower fertility rates soon occurred more uniformly throughout rest of the country.

    Follow the link to see the chart that shows the difference in fertility rates between states that allowed the Pill to be used and those that prohibited it. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Media and Availability of Contraception

    dl516 FOUND 033226 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;SexualBehavior_teensYoungAdults`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 033239 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 032550 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;NA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 032505 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 031930 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 031379 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 031633 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 031494 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 031369 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 031279 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 031073 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030977 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030885 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030796 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030608 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030607 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_Contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030603 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030592 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030545 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 030144 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;M`M;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029970 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029811 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029571 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029518 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029356 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029289 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029282 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029173 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029187 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029184 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Sustainability_Agriculture`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 029180 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026030 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M`;BirthControl_maleResponsibility`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028909 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028701 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028712 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028625 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028542 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028537 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_politics`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028471 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;FundingPolitics_Contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028239 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028269 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M`;PopulationControl_Controlling`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028296 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028283 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028066 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;Abortion_antiChoice`M`;FundingPolitics_Contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028096 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 028017 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027959 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027964 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;FundingPolitics_philanthropists`M`;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027935 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_politics`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;FundingPolitics_TitleX`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027802 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027684 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027739 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027613 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027494 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027372 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_contraception`A`;BirthControl_choices`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027365 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Europe`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027363 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;Countries_Africa`A`;HumanImpacts_malnutrtion`A`;WhatWorks_contraception`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027337 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 027056 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;FundingPolitics_Contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026910 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_education`M`;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026916 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;Impacts_oceans`M`;Sustainability_Sustainability`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M`;NewsDigest_videos`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026747 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026729 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026602 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M`;NewsDigest_videos`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026595 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;NewsDigest_pointsSolutions`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_education`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026495 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_politics`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026353 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026322 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026216 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;NewsDigest_videos`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026120 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026105 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 026013 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 025884 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 025861 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    ***ERROR: Docid 025852 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 5
    dl516 FOUND 025775 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 025567 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 025503 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 025240 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_condomsSTDsIntro`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 025169 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Abortion_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024889 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024894 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024621 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024852 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024598 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024580 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024389 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Abortion_politics`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024363 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024362 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024328 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Islam`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024139 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M;EmergencyContraception_ECconcerns`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024137 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 024049 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023994 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_maleResponsibility`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023936 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023733 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Religion_Vatican`M;AIDS_STDs`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023686 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023745 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021339 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023558 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023544 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023511 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023369 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023203 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022565 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 023015 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022489 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022466 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022667 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022209 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022416 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022259 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022266 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_TitleX`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021717 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021995 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022007 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 022067 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021571 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021958 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;EmergencyContraception_ECItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021631 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021794 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;M;Countries_Africa`M;M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021525 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021451 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021400 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021385 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021283 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021291 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 021359 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 020453 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 020546 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 020241 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019959 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 020257 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 020093 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 020025 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019190 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019580 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019684 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;EmergencyContraception_ECItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019637 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019811 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019797 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 019210 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 018937 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 018674 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 018656 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 018620 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 018014 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 017856 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;SexualBehavior_index`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 017759 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 017439 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 017459 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;EmergencyContraception_ECItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 017324 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 017195 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 016890 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 016889 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;India_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 016988 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 016995 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 016886 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 016268 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015823 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015824 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015548 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015751 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015412 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015467 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;EmergencyContraception_ECItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015439 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 015341 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_abstinence`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014916 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014290 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014867 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014469 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014504 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014094 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014071 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_statesRegions`M;Religion_Vatican`M;EmergencyContraception_EClegislation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014152 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;BirthControl_choices`M;USpopulation_births`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 014021 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_choices`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 013579 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 013518 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;BirthControl_religiousAlternatives`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 013128 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_statesRegions`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 012784 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 012547 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;FundingPolitics_EPICC`M;USpopulation_USNews`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 012460 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 012104 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 012204 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 012167 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 012090 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 011847 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 011537 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 011593 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 011476 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 011372 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 011248 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 010611 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 010664 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M;Countries_Oceana`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    dl516 FOUND 008192 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_contraception ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_contraception
    ***ERROR: Docid 033016 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 6

    Foundation Pledges of $2 Million Save Colorado IUD Program as Fight Continues Over Public Funding

       August 2015, Business Journals

    A Colorado birth control program that has cut unplanned pregnancies and abortions by nearly half since 2009 will stay alive for at least one more year thanks to $2 million in donations from 12 private foundations. Earlier this year Republican lawmakers -- some of them claiming that IUDs are abortifacients, and some saying that the program promotes promiscuity -- had killed a bill that would have provided $5 million in public funding for IUDs and other long-acting reversible contraceptives for low-income teens and young women.

    Five years prior to that, the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation had funded a pilot effort in Colorado that provided teens and young women with long-acting birth control devices, resulting in a 48% drop statewide in unintended pregnancies and abortions. That's up from a 40% drop through 2013.

    Colorado health officials estimate that the IUDs and other devices have saved at least $79 million in Medicaid costs for unplanned births.

    "I feel fortunate that we have that community to turn to in what I considered an emergency situation," said Dr. Larry Wolk, Colorado's top health official.

    IUDs and other long-acting forms of contraception cost more initially, but are the most effective form of birth control, especially for teens who can struggle to get refills of birth control pills or forget to take them every day.

    Kelly Conroy, nurse manager for clinic services for Jefferson County Public Health, said "The word is definitely getting out. We have a lot of patients who come in and specifically ask for the devices by name. ... A friend will be on Mirena (an IUD). They will know which one they want - hormonal or non-hormonal. People are coming in way more educated."

    "Our ultimate goal is empowering not just woman, but families with the ability to know that they can make the choice (to have a baby) when they're ready," she said.

    Cutting teen pregnancy rates has also been found to reduce high school dropout rates. Those who get a good education go on to earn higher incomes, thus reducing poverty rates and cutting reliance on Medicaid and other programs for people living in poverty.

    "Other states are very excited about the results from Colorado," said Lisa Waddell, chief of community health and prevention for the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. "All states are results-oriented and want the best outcomes for adolescents, women and families. At least 14 other states are working on some kind of boost to the use of IUDs or similar devices.

    Waddell said, "These are highly effective devices...You're seeing a systems change." The failure rate with IUDs and other long-acting devices is less than 1%, while birth control pills fail at a 9% rate and condoms don't work 18% of the time.

    Six states that have already changed their policies on long-acting birth control led the way. Georgia, Iowa, New Mexico, Massachusetts and South Carolina have already changed their policies on long-acting birth control.

    50% of pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned. One of the programs that has been most popular in other states is to offer women who have just given birth an IUD or other long-acting device while they're still in the hospital after having had a baby. Medicaid will pay for those devices.

    South Carolina health officials have been focusing on using long-acting birth control as a method for driving down stubbornly high infant mortality rates. Premature births that can put babies in jeopardy are higher among teens and others who get pregnant unexpectedly. doclink

    Where Teens Don't Get Sex Ed, IUD Goes Unmentioned

    After Colorado's teen birth rate marked a steep decline tied to the IUD, you'd expect teens across the country to be talking about the pros and cons of this particular method. Instead, few teens at this school have even heard of it.
       August 24, 2015, Women's eNews   By: Angela Roberts

    Out of the 14 teens interviewed at Peters Township High School in Western Pennsylvania during school hours last spring, only two recognized the name of the IUD, a contraceptive device.

    It's not as though IUDs are off limits -- free IUDs are available, just as much as any other contraceptive device, to all teenage girls living in Pennsylvania through the Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, according to Wesley Culp of the state's Department of Health.

    But Pennsylvania is among the 22 states that do not require sexual education to be taught in schools or for information about contraceptive options to be provided. Since in 2010, more than $1.6 million in federal funds was provided to Pennsylvania for abstinence-only education programs, Peters Township embraces these programs strongly.

    "The scope and content of the topics we are permitted to address in our personal wellness classes do not include these various forms of birth control methods," said John Vavala, a health and physical education teacher at the high school.

    Sophomore Mila Shadel said, "All we learned was not to have sex," ... "That's it. No methods of protection or anything."

    Although they all have chosen to be abstinent in high school, 14 girls who were interviewed expressed interest in using an IUD in the future once a reporter explained what it was.

    "Although I'm not sexually active now, I would definitely use one if I am in the future," said one girl. "It sounds like a safe, long-term option that I would prefer over getting my tubes tied."

    In 2014, out of the 3.2 million teenage girls using contraceptives, only 3% relied on an IUD while 53% used the pill, finds the Guttmacher Institute.

    In the 1970s and '80s people were leary of IUDs due to reports of septic abortions, pelvic inflammatory infections, and perforations of the uterus caused by Dalkon Shield IUDs.

    30% of health providers are still wary of the device, according to the CDC but school nurse Kowalczyk says: "IUDs got a bad rap after the health problems surrounding them in the 70's," ... "But they are well researched and a safe option" for teens.

    This story is part of Teen Voices at Women's eNews. doclink

    Addressing U.S. Population Growth Through Better, More Accessible and More Affordable Contraception

       April 8, 2015, WOA website   By: Karen Gaia

    50% of pregnancies in the U.S. are unintended. Why? Mostly because of ineffective contraception (i.e. the pill and condoms) and not being able to afford effective contraception. Another reason is that many doctors still discourage women with no children from using the IUD.

    In 2009, the estimated number of pregnancies was 6,369,000 (4,131,000 live births, 1,152,000 induced abortions, and 1,087,000 fetal losses). Eliminate half of those by meeting the unmet need for affordable, accessible, effective contraception and accurate information about it, and you have only 2,050,000 (2.05 million) live births.

    In 2009 there were 307 million Americans. The U.S. was growing by 0.9% at that time, or 2.76 million people. If we had cut the birth rate in half by using effective contraception for all who wanted it, we would have had a population growth of only .71 million, or about 0.35%.

    However, the population growth rate has declined to 0.7% in 2013, probably due to lowered desired family size, so we could expect an even faster decline if every woman of child bearing age got effective contraception, if desired.

    doclink

    Access to Contraception

       March 24, 2015, ACOG - American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynocologists

    Nearly all U.S. women who have ever had sexual intercourse have used some form of contraception at some point during their reproductive lives. However, multiple barriers prevent women from obtaining contraceptives or using them effectively and consistently.

    The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College) recommends full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) requirement that new and revised private health insurance plans cover all U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved contraceptives without cost sharing.

    Also recommended:

    * Easily accessible alternative contraceptive coverage for women who receive health insurance through employers exempted from the contraceptive coverage requirement.

    * Medicaid expansion in all states, an action critical to the ability of low-income women to obtain improved access to contraceptives

    * Adequate funding for the federal Title X family planning program and Medicaid family planning services to ensure contraceptive availability for low-income women

    * Sufficient compensation for contraceptive services by public and private payers to ensure access, including appropriate payment for clinician services and acquisition-cost reimbursement for supplies

    * Age-appropriate, medically accurate, comprehensive sexuality education that includes information on abstinence as well as the full range of FDA-approved contraceptives

    * Confidential, comprehensive contraceptive care and access to contraceptive methods for adolescents without mandated parental notification or consent, including confidentiality in billing and insurance claims processing procedures

    * The right of women to receive prescribed contraceptives or an immediate informed referral from all pharmacies

    * Prompt referral to an appropriate health care provider by clinicians, religiously affiliated hospitals, and others who do not provide contraceptive services

    * Evaluation of effects on contraceptive access in a community before hospital mergers and affiliations are considered or approved

    * Efforts to increase access to emergency contraception, including removal of the age restriction for all levonorgestrel emergency contraception products, to create true over-the-counter access

    * Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives with accompanying full insurance coverage or cost supports

    * Payment and practice policies that support provision of 3-13 month supplies of combined hormonal methods to improve contraceptive continuation

    * Provision of medically accurate public and health care provider education regarding contraception Improved access to postpartum sterilization

    * Institutional and payment policies that support immediate postpartum and postabortion provision of contraception, including reimbursement for long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) devices separate from the global fee for delivery, and coverage for contraceptive care and contraceptive methods provided on the same day as an abortion procedure

    * Inclusion of all contraceptive methods

    * Funding for research to identify effective strategies to reduce health inequities in unintended pregnancy and access to contraception

    The CDC named contraception one of the 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century because of it's contribution to improved health and well-being, reduced global maternal mortality, health benefits of pregnancy spacing for maternal and child health, female engagement in the work force, and economic self-sufficiency for women. 87.5% of U.S. women who have been sexually active report use of a highly effective reversible method.

    The College supports women's right to decide whether to have children, to determine the number and spacing of their children, and to have the information, education, and access to health services to make those choices. Women must have access to reproductive health care, including the full range of contraceptive choices, to fulfill these rights.

    The U.S. has higher pregnancy and abortion rates than most other developed countries. Low-income women have even higher rates. The Healthy People 2020 goal is to decrease the rate of unintended pregnancies from 49% to 44%.

    Women with unintended pregnancies must choose between carrying the pregnancy to term, putting the baby up for adoption, or to undergo abortion. Medical, ethical, social, legal, and financial reasons come into play. U.S. births from unintended pregnancies cost taxpayers approximately $12.5 billion in 2008. Each dollar spent on publicly funded contraceptive services saves the U.S. health care system nearly $6.

    Barriers:

    * The emphasis on abstinence-only education may have in part led to widespread misperceptions of contraceptive effectiveness, mechanisms of action, and safety that can have an effect on contraceptive use and method selection. Many individuals believe that oral contraceptives are linked to major health problems or that IUDs carry a high risk of infection, or that certain contracptives may be abortifacients. None of the FDA-approved contraceptive methods are abortifacients because they do not interfere with a pregnancy.

    * Many clinicians are uncertain about the risks and benefits of IUDs and lack knowledge about correct patient selection and contraindications.

    * Legal rulings and legislative measures can impede access to contraceptives for minors and adults and interfere with the patient-physician relationship by impeding contraceptive counseling, coverage, and provision. Hobby Lobby is an example.

    * Supporters of "personhood" measures argue erroneously that most methods of contraception act as abortifacients because they may prevent a fertilized egg from implanting; if these measures are sucessful, hormonal contraceptive methods and IUDs could be illegal.

    * While the Title X family planning program and Medicaid require that minors receive confidential health services, currently, 20 states restrict some minors' ability to consent to contraceptive services.

    * More than one half of the 37 million U.S. women who needed contraceptive services in 2010 were in need of publicly funded services, either because they had an income below 250% of the federal poverty level or because they were younger than 20 years. 25% of women in the United States who obtain contraceptive services seek these services at publicly funded family planning clinics.

    * There was a 17% increase (about 3 million) in the number of women needing publicly funded contraceptive services from 2000 to 2010. As the ACA goes into effect, obstetrician-gynecologists can be strong advocates for continued expansion of affordable contraceptive access, which has been shown to be cost neutral at worst and cost saving at best.

    * In 2000, the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concluded that a company's failure to cover contraception is sex discrimination under the 1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act. However, even when contraception is covered, women pay approximately 60% of the cost out of pocket compared only 33% for noncontraceptive drugs.

    * Under the ACA, all FDA-approved contraceptive methods, sterilization procedures, and patient contraceptive education and counseling are covered for women without cost sharing by all new and revised health plans and issuers. This requirement also applies to those enrolled in Medicaid expansion programs. However, many employers are now exempt from these requirements because of regulatory and court decisions, leaving many women uncovered. In addition unauthorized immigrants remain uninsured in spite of the ACA. For these women the most effective methods, such as IUDs and the contraceptive implant, likely will remain out of reach.

    * Another barrier is the distribution of only a month's supply of contraception at one time. Data show that provision of a year's supply of contraceptives is cost effective and improves adherence and continuation rates.

    * Some policy makers also require women to "fail" certain contraceptive methods before an IUD or implant will be covered.

    * Allowing over-the-counter access to oral contraceptive pills is a good strategy for improving access, but only if over-the-counter products also are covered by insurance or other cost supports in order to make them financially accessible to low-income women.

    * Ten of the 25 largest health systems in the country are Catholic-sponsored facilities which object to contraception.

    * Another barrier is the pharmacist who refused to fill contraceptive prescriptions or provide emergency contraception. For women in areas where pharmacies and pharmacists are limited, such as rural areas, this obstacle may be insurmountable.

    * There is no benefit to a routine pelvic examination or cervical cytology before initiating hormonal contraception. However some doctors insist on one, in order to deter a woman, especially an adolescent, from having a clinical visit that could facilitate her use of a more effective contraceptive method than those available over the counter.

    * Another common practice is requiring two visits to place a LARC device when one is all that is really needed.

    * A study showed that almost 50% of women who did not receive a requested postpartum sterilization were pregnant again within 1 year. Twenty seven percent of reproductive-aged women choose to undergo permanent sterilization once they have completed childbearing, and many of them want the procedure to take place immediately after birth. However often the hospital is not always prepared for this, or the insurance does not cover it. Medicaid regulations require signed consent 30 days before sterilization, eliminating immediate postpartum sterilization as an option in many cases. The regulation was created to protect women from coerced sterilization, but it also can pose a barrier to a desired sterilization.

    * Highly effective LARC methods are underutilized, mostly by adolescents and women who have not had children. Providing effective contraception postpartum and postabortion can be ideal because the patient is often highly motivated to avoid pregnancy, but appropriate reimbursement for LARC methods at these times can be difficult to obtain.

    * Unintended pregnancy rates for poor women are more than five times the rate for women in the highest income bracket and this number has increased substantially over the past decade. Publicly funded programs that support family planning services, including Title X and Medicaid, are increasingly underfunded and cannot bridge the gap in access for vulnerable women. To address these barriers, the ACA has encouraged states to expand Medicaid eligibility for family planning services to greater numbers of low-income women. In states that choose to expand Medicaid under the ACA, fewer poor women will lose Medicaid eligibility postpartum.

    All women should have unhindered and affordable access to all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptives as an integral component of women's health care. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: My daughter was told by her doctor that she couldn't have an IUD because she didn't have any children yet. So she had to go to another doctor to get it. Her friend was told by her doctor that the IUD promoted slutty behavior.

    More Women Are Choosing More Effective Birth Control - Here's Why it Matters

       December 15, 2014, Grist   By: Eve Andrews

    The percentage of women using contraception has not changed since 2006; however the percentage of those using long-acting reversible contraption - LARCs (IUDS and hormonal implants) in the U.S. has risen from 2.4% in 2002 to 7.2%, the CDC reports. Calculations from the Guttmacher Institute indicate that it could be closer to 12%. International LARC usage is even higher at 25% of global contraceptive users using IUDs alone.

    This is good news for people who want to have sex without the whole making-a-baby hassle.

    LARCs are more effective than any other reversible form of contraception, at 99%. Ask any woman who has some experience with birth control if she's forgotten to take a pill, or had a condom break. Accidents like this don't happen with an IUD or hormonal implant. Recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics came out in support of doctors recommending LARC methods for teen patients seeking contraception.

    The increase in LARC usage could be due to the fact that the Affordable Care Act covers contraceptive methods without a deductible expense for many, many women. As LARC usage has increased, the abortion rate dropped 13%. The rate of unintended pregnancy in the U.S. is 51%, which is higher than the global average. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: see http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/metro/contraceptive-study-in-st-louis-coincides-with-drop-in-abortion/article_9efe9196-b672-5f6a-9a6a-c094e7fe5546.html for a study that verifies that free effective contraception greatly reduces unintended pregnancies and even the number of abortions.

    Novel Agreement Expands Access to Pfizer's Contraceptive, Sayana© Press, for Women Most in Need in the World's Poorest Countries

    Collaboration will help advance progress and support global efforts to increase access to voluntary family planning information, services and contraceptives by 2020
       November 13, 2014, Pfizer   By: Media Capsule

    Designed for women most in need in 69 of the world's poorest countries, Sayana© Press is a long-acting, reversible, contraceptive with an all-in-one prefilled, single-use, non-reusable Uniject™ injection system that eliminates the need to prepare a needle and syringe. The contraceptive is meant to be administered by health workers to women at home or in other convenient settings. The training basic and straightforward. Each subcutaneous injection prevents ovulation and provides contraception for at least 13 weeks.

    Injectables are already widely used by among women in developing countries where the lifetime risk for death due to a maternal cause can be as high as one in 15.

    John Young, President, Pfizer Global Established Pharma Business said: "Pfizer saw an opportunity to address the needs of women living in hard-to-reach areas, and specifically enhanced the product's technology with public health in mind. I'm so pleased with the leadership from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Children's Investment Fund Foundation and other collaborating organizations that are helping create a sustainable market through an approach that could be a model for other medicines."

    More than 200 million women in developing countries want to delay pregnancy or prevent undesired pregnancy but are not using any method of contraception. Since the landmark London Summit on Family Planning in July 2012, the global community has been working together to provide an additional 120 million women in the world's 69 poorest countries with access to voluntary family planning information and services by 2020.

    In 2013, the number of women using modern contraceptives in the 69 focus countries increased by 8.4 million in one year to 273 million. The additional use of contraception helped avert 77 million unintended pregnancies and 125,000 maternal deaths.

    "When women are able to plan their families, they are more likely to survive pregnancy and child birth, to have healthier newborns and children, and to invest more in their families' health and wellbeing," said Dr. Chris Elias, President of Global Development Programs at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    In many developing countries, women must return to a clinic or health post every three months for a new injection from a skilled health worker, limiting access in remote and other hard-to-reach areas. Accordingly, experts have identified the need for a contraceptive method that can be administered in low-resource, non-clinic settings. Sayana© Press could help fill this gap.

    Sayana© Press is approved in the European Union, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Uganda, as well as additional markets in Latin America and within the Asia Pacific region. It is not approved or available for use in the United States.

    Since the introduction program launched in Burkina Faso in July 2014, approximately 75,000 Sayana© Press units have been distributed to health facilities in the introduction countries, and approximately 2,500 health care providers have thus far been trained on it's administration. doclink

    Population Controls 'will Not Solve Environment Issues'

       October 27, 2014, BBC News   By: Matt Mcgrath

    PNAS -- the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences -- recently published a report.

    Our current path will take us to maybe 12 billion humans on Earth by 2100, which, with rising affluence and consumption rates, leads to worry about the conversion of forests for agriculture, the rise of urbanisation, the pressure on species, pollution, and climate change.

    A worldwide one-child policy would mean the number of people in 2100 remained around current levels.

    "Even if we had a third world war in the middle of this century, you would barely make a dent in the trajectory over the next 100 years" says Prof Corey Bradshaw University of Adelaide.

    Many experts have argued the best way of tackling this impact is to facilitate a rapid transition to much lower fertility rates. According to the study, attempts to curb our population as a short-term fix will not work. "We've gone past the point where we can do it easily, just by the sheer magnitude of the population, what we call the demographic momentum. We just can't stop it fast enough," said Bradshaw.

    The scientists said the issue of population and its impact on global consumption was often described as the "elephant in the room" - a problem that the world ignores as it is politically and ethically difficult to tackle. "Our work reveals that effective family planning and reproduction education worldwide have great potential to constrain the size of the human population and alleviate pressure on resource availability over the longer term," said Prof Barry Brook from the University of Tasmania. As a result of this long-term impact, the world should focus on curbing consumption and designing ways to conserve species and ecosystems. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: This report assumes that fertility rates will continue to fall. Unfortunately, if we don't do something about them, they will rise again -- because funding for these programs is slowing and women still have an unmet need for contraception. If we focus only on consumption, conservation, and preservation of ecosystems, the fertility rates will go up.

    In addition, helping women control their own reproduction helps give them the resilience needed to cope with climate change.

    Publicly Funded Family Planning Saved $13 Billion - but Lawmakers Don't Think It's Worth the Investment

    For every dollar spent on contraception and STI testing, the government saves 7 more. Oh, and people stay healthy
       October 14, 2014, Salon   By: Jenny Kutner

    Lawmakers have continued to slash safety nets for contraceptive coverage and other Title X-funded family planning programs.

    An analysis from the Guttmacher Institute found that such services helped prevent an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies and 1.1 million unplanned births, and helped prevent nearly 761,000 abortions.

    One might think that the right-to-life movement would be motivated, by the prevention of such a large number of abortions, to get on board with access to solid family planning.

    Publicly funded services prevented or treated tens of thousands of STI infections in over 3 million women; allowed patients to detect 1,100 ectopic pregnancies, which can be life-threatening, and treated 2,200 cases of infertility.

    For every dollar spent on publicly funded family planning services, the government saves over $7. That's $13.6 billion saved -- in addition to millions of lives. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2 3

    Benefits of Family Planning

    dl516 FOUND 032742 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FPbenefits ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FPbenefits`M;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FPbenefits
    dl516 FOUND 032629 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FPbenefits ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FPbenefits`M;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FPbenefits
    dl516 FOUND 032428 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FPbenefits ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FPbenefits`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FPbenefits
    dl516 FOUND 032349 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FPbenefits ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FPbenefits`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FPbenefits
    dl516 FOUND 032355 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FPbenefits ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FPbenefits`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FPbenefits
    dl516 FOUND 032968 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FPbenefits ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_FPbenefits`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FPbenefits
    dl516 FOUND 032983 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_FPbenefits ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;PopulationControl_Balanced`M;WhatWorks_FPbenefits`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_FPbenefits

    The Faces Behind the Numbers

       July 11, 2015, Sierra Club   By: Michael Brune, Executive Director, Sierra Club

    On World Population Day it's easy to focus on the numbers -- over 7 billion humans now sharing our planet, and 10 billion later. But it is about much more than the numbers -- it's about the needs of the people behind those statistics.

    Even though it has been 20 years since the United Nations defined voluntary family planning as a basic human right, 225 million women around the world today want to plan, space, or delay childbirth but have no access to modern contraceptive methods. That means these women have little power to control their own lives or escape the cycle of poverty.

    If women and families are going to gain ground economically, politically, or environmentally, we need to address not only access to voluntary family planning but clean energy access, clean water access, and the right to an education.

    Helping those in need will help all of us. For instance, if we simply filled the unmet demand for family planning, the resulting reduction in CO2 emissions would be equivalent to eliminating deforestation worldwide, doubling the fuel economy of every car on the planet, or replacing every coal-fired power plant with solar energy.

    We can't have a healthy planet without healthy families.

    To mark World Population Day, the Sierra Club's Global Population and Environment Program has released its second POP Quiz -- https://secure.sierraclub.org/site/SPageNavigator/PRG_GP_PopQuiz_JE.html . Test your own knowledge of the connection between the health of women and families and our environment. doclink

    Birth Control Isn't a 'Women's Issue' - It's An Economic Issue

       July 8, 2015, Yahoo! News   By: Julia Sonenshein

    Birth control is not only the biggest asset to female autonomy in modern history, it is also an economic issue that is in all of our best interests. Almost half of pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned. Significantly reducing unintended pregnancies would save taxpayers an estimated average of $5.6 billion per year.

    Giving women early access to birth control pills accounted for 10% of the narrowing in the gender gap during the 1980s and 31% during the 1990s, allowing for women to have higher lifetime incomes and education. 51% of women surveyed reported that contraception allowed them to complete their education, and 50% said contraception enabled them to work.

    Women have saved a staggering $1.4 billion on birth control pills since the Affordable Care Act required insurance companies to cover birth control at no cost to the consumer, while spending on IUDs has fallen 68%.

    Until recently, if your workplace chooses not to cover your birth control because of ethical or religious reasons, you were stuck paying for your contraception out of pocket, which for many could be prohibitive, even if an unintended pregnancy could be especially financially devastating.

    Access to birth control is an economic necessity, and it's an issue our country can't afford to sleep on. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: 1) There is hope that new rules coming from the Obama administration will provide an alternative coverage for birth control methods. 2) No sources were quoted for the statistics in this article. They could very likely be from the Guttmacher Institute

    Improving Nutrition and Food Security Through Family Planning

       June 2015

    The goal of "Improving Nutrition and Food Security Through Family Planning" is to raise awareness and understanding among decision makers about how family planning can help improve key measures of nutrition for mothers, infants, and children, as well as improve food security on a broader scale. Ultimately, the aim is to start a critical policy dialogue to encourage integration of family planning into nutrition and food security policies, strategies, action plans, and programs throughout the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. As such, this presentation can be used as a tool to not only raise awareness, but also to mobilize political commitment and resources.

    Developed under the USAID-funded Informing DEcisionmakers to Act (IDEA) project, this presentation is part of a series of ENGAGE presentations that examine the relationship between family planning and the Millennium Development Goals in developing country contexts. doclink

    A Woman in Guediawaye: Family Planning for Health and Development in Senegal

       April 29, 2015

    The CSIS Global Health Policy Center produced a new video, A Woman in Guédiawaye: Family Planning for Health and Development in Senegal. The video follows a young woman, Anta Ba, from Guédiawaye, a poor urban area of Dakar, who explains why she decided to access family planning, despite her husband's opposition, and why these services matter for her own life and for women's health and empowerment in Senegal. Through her story, and through the voices of other champions of family planning in Senegal-government and NGO health workers, an imam, and the Minister of Health-the video illustrates new approaches to expanding access to family planning as well as the challenges ahead. doclink

    U.S.: Unintended Pregnancies Cost Federal and State Governments $21 Billion in 2010

       February 27, 2015, Guttmacher Institute   By: Adam Sonfield and Kathryn Kost.

    A study "Public Costs from Unintended Pregnancies and the Role of Public Insurance Programs in Paying for Pregnancy-Related Care: National and State Estimates for 2010," showed that U.S. government expenditures on births, abortions and miscarriages resulting from unintended pregnancies nationwide totaled $21 billion in 2010. In 19 states, public expenditures related to unintended pregnancies exceeded $400 million in 2010. Texas spent the most ($2.9 billion), followed by California ($1.8 billion), New York ($1.5 billion) and Florida ($1.3 billion); those four states are also the nation's most populous.

    51% of the four million births in the United States in 2010 were publicly funded, including 68% of unplanned births and 38% of planned births.

    Prior research has shown that investing in publicly funded family planning services enables women to avoid unwanted pregnancies and space wanted ones, which is good not only for women and families, but also for society as a whole. In the absence of the current U.S. publicly funded family planning effort, the public costs of unintended pregnancies in 2010 would have been 75% higher.

    Adam Sonfield, one of the authors, said. "Reducing public expenditures related to unintended pregnancies requires substantial new public investments in family planning services." ... "That would mean strengthening existing programs, such as the Title X family planning program, as well as working to ensure that the Affordable Care Act achieves its full potential to bolster Medicaid and other safety-net programs. We know we can prevent unintended pregnancies and the related costs. There are public programs in place that do it already, but as these data show, there is significantly more progress to be made." doclink

    Provide Family Planning in Congo

       February 21, 2015   By: Richard Grossman Md

    The London Summit on Family Planning was the start of something big. If kept, an array of promises made at the groundbreaking July 11 2012 event could have a major impact on the lives of women and girls for years to come ... Susan A. Cohen, Guttmacher Institute

    In a prior article I wrote about how it was possible for one doctor to perform hundreds of tubal ligations in one day-but probably not honor the rights of the patients. The next column was about putting human and reproductive rights first and foremost. Today's column focuses on one country where FP2020 is making amazing improvements in the lives of women and children.

    FP2020 is the nickname of the ambitious program started in 2012 at the London Summit on Family Planning. Its goal is to reach 120 million women of the 225 million who are unable to access modern contraception, but wish to regulate their fertility. These are women in developing countries who currently have little or no access to reproductive health care. Typically they have high fertility rates and high rates of child deaths, illegal abortion and maternal mortality. Often these women are the poorest of the poor, have little schooling and are subservient to men. Many of these women live grim lives.

    A very high percentage of people in wealthy countries already use family planning (FP); indeed, that is part of how we became wealthy. It is time to share that knowledge and technology with our less fortunate brothers and sisters. Unfortunately where access to FP is limited, infrastructure is also challenging-transportation, sanitation and communication are often poor. Reaching these people will be difficult.

    Providing full reproductive health care for every woman in the world who does not currently have access to those services would cost a whopping 40 billion dollars annually-about the same amount as the US military spends in a month. The lives saved by such an investment would make that money very well spent, however. Reaching all people in developing countries with FP and with maternal and newborn care would prevent 79,000 maternal deaths, 26 million abortions and 21 million unplanned births each year.

    The cost of providing just FP services for these people would be about nine billion dollars a year. Because moms will be healthier, improved birth spacing alone would prevent over a million infant deaths globally each year!

    Funding is a major challenge for FP2020. The programs are jointly supported by developing countries and by donor (wealthy) countries. In addition, generous funding has come from foundations; the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is a major source of financial support as well as being a prime mover. Assistance also comes from the UN and the US Agency for International Development, among many other organizations.

    One of the FP2020 programs is in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This beleaguered country has had a miserable history of colonialism, dictators and civil war. Average income there is less than two dollars per day. Only 53 % women are literate, and only one in twenty married women uses a modern method of contraception. Indeed, a 1933 law makes contraception illegal! The average woman bears over 6 children in her lifetime and the country will double in population every 23 years-exacerbating many of its economic and political problems.

    Despite these challenges, FP2020 is seeing successes in DRCongo. One project was to map existing FP resources, using a sophisticated system of data collection with cell phones. They now know where there are trained FP personnel and which pharmacies have pills or injectable birth control. Fortunately, all sites offer condoms.

    Women in DRCongo have been relying on traditional methods of FP for years, with too many unintended pregnancies-more than a million in 2013. Contraceptive implants (such as Nexplanon©) were introduced in 2014 with great success. So far, the program has recruited almost 200,000 new users of modern contraception.

    What FP2020 has meant to women in DRCongo is telling. More than 300,000 unintended pregnancies were averted in 2013. Calculations suggest that 1481 women's lives were saved, and 76,000 unsafe abortions were prevented by the use of modern contraception.

    FP2020 offers hope for the future, especially for people in countries such as DRCongo. I am optimistic that FP2020 can help women and families lead healthier and happier lives and will be a model for the future of family planning. And I expect it and future programs will be built on respect for the people that they serve. doclink

    Social Justice Requires Family Planning

       February 13, 2015, Population Connection Action Fund   By: Elspeth Dehnert

    Evidence from around the world shows that investments in reproductive health are critical to reducing poverty and increasing educational levels.

    While most women in the United States have access to contraception, some 225 million women in the developing do not, even though they wish that they did.

    Having the ability to prevent pregnancy, survive childbirth, and enjoy equal opportunities is a basic human right. And it is up to all of us to call on our prospective governments to make a real investment in international family planning - otherwise, the world may never achieve true social justice.

    Only $25 per year buys a woman living in the developing world lifesaving family planning services, and a new outlook on life.

    Making voluntary family planning available to everyone in the developing world would reduce costs for newborn and maternal health care by more than 11 billion dollars.

    Poverty elimination, gender equality, and educational and health equity cannot be fully realized until everyone around the world has the ability to plan their pregnancies. doclink

    PHE - Population, Health, Environment

    dl516 FOUND 033113 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_PHE ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_PHE`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_PHE
    dl516 FOUND 033024 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_PHE ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_PHE`M;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_PHE
    dl516 FOUND 031636 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_PHE ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_PHE`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_PHE

    The SDGs Are All About Integration - Good Thing PHE Programs Have Been Doing That for Years

       August 5, 2015, NewSecurityBeat   By: A.tianna Scozzaro, Cara Honzak, & Cheryl Margoluis

    The United Nations, governments, civil society organizations, and communities have come together to define the development goals and targets that UN member states will aim for over the next 15 years.

    The SDG's 17 goals and 169 targets cover everything from global health to urbanization to marine life. To achieve so many targets, it is clear that there will need to be more holistic development efforts that cross traditional sectoral boundaries, like health or the environment.

    Pathfinder International, the Sierra Club, PAI, and others have collaborated for over a decade around a global development approach known as population, health and environment (PHE), which is an integrated, community-based approach that works to expand access to reproductive and other health care services, improve livelihoods, manage resources, and protect the environment.

    The PHE approach improves access to sexual and reproductive health services in hard-to-reach and underserved areas while empowering communities with the knowledge and tools needed to manage their natural resources sustainably. The premise is that these two goals are linked in many remote rural areas that are far from government services and reliant on the environment for their livelihoods. Unmet demand for family planning is often high and giving couples the opportunity to choose the timing and number of children they want allows them greater control over their family's health and wellbeing, and the health of the environment.

    PHE programs conserve critical ecosystems and resources, contribute to better health outcomes, and expand livelihood options - all key components of the SDGs. This approach has also been shown to lower opportunity costs to accessing services, improve understanding of linkages between human and ecosystems health, and promote broad community buy-in.

    The integrated approach of PHE is a combination of interventions which is also addressing many of the SDGs already:

    SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere

    In the Lake Tanganyika region, which provides 40% of the protein to lake shore villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Tanzania, and Zambia, higher temperatures and unsustainable fishing practices are severely impacting the productivity of food. A PHE project called Tuungane addresses the needs of Tanzanian villages holistically by providing access to health services, alternative livelihood training, and improving agricultural practices in order to alleviate some of the pressure on the lake ecosystem.

    SDG 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture

    Coastal communities in the Philippines that participated in a PHE program were able to diversify their incomes and rely less on fishing as their primary livelihood as compared to communities that only participated in a coastal resource management intervention.

    SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages

    Women who are able to plan their family size are more resilient to climate disruption, more likely to participate in local conservation efforts, and better able to manage resources for their families.

    SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

    In Ethiopia, husbands who participated in a PHE project were four times more likely to support the use of family planning than husbands exposed to a reproductive health-only program. Ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights is fundamental to achieving gender equality and PHE has proven to be an effective way to spread this message to new audiences.

    SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

    Newer generations of PHE projects have included water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions and most have reported a change in household hygiene behaviors and therefore improved health outcomes as a result.

    SDG 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

    PHE is effective in serving remote, highly marginalized, traditional populations where single-sector approaches have not succeeded. Using PHE programs leads to improved access to health care, uptake of services, and increased engagement in natural resources management. doclink

    Paving the Way: Ethiopia's Youth on the Road to Sustainability

       July 2015, NewSecurityBeat

    Tesema Merga was part of a vanguard of young Ethiopians who brought the first roads to the Gurage in the 1960s. He and others went on to form the Gurage People's Self-help Development Organization (GPSDO).

    Today, Tesema and GPSDO are working with the next generation of local leaders to establish PHE clubs at local schools and encourage girls education and empowerment. doclink

    The Endangered Wildlife Trust Breaks the Population Taboo

       November 12, 2014, AG Africa Geographic   By: David Johnson

    The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) recently became the newest member of the Population and Sustainability Network (PSN), an independent body which also coordinates an international network of organisations recognising the importance of population and consumption impacts as significant factors in sustainable development. PSN raises support for, and investment in, sexual and reproductive health services which respect and protect rights. PSN membership includes the United Nations Population Fund, the UK government's Department for International Development, the International Planned Parenthood Federation and several smaller conservation organisations promoting the integrated approach to development known as "Population, Health and Environment".

    Poor rural communities rely on healthy ecosystems for their food, water and livelihoods. When population growth threatens those ecosystems, the local communities suffer too. Population, Health and Environment (PHE) programs integrate improved sexual and reproductive health services with conservation actions and the creation of alternative and sustainable livelihoods. This approach has led to greater conservation and health outcomes than single sector actions but continental southern Africa has no PHE programs.

    The women's rights NGO Thohoyandou Victim Empowerment Programme (TVEP), based in Limpopo, South Africa, also has become a member of EWT. TVEP passionately advocates for increasing women's capacity to act. Male partners must allow female partners to use the contraceptives of their choice and this is not always the case. TVEP's programs seek to ensure women can exercise their rights to make their own contraceptive and other decisions.

    Africa's population is anticipated to double by 2050, a reality which successful conservation cannot ignore. When women are empowered to choose the number and timing of their pregnancies, they are likely to have fewer, healthier children, which means that fewer natural resources need be harvested, benefiting food security and the environment.

    The EWT and TVEP are hoping to get funding for a pilot project for a site in KwaZulu-Natal where human settlements are encroaching on remaining habitats and where an absence of alternative livelihoods means some locals have little choice but to turn to bush meat to support their families. Sometimes the bush meat animal is endangered.

    To help them get their funding, click here to vote for this project as a candidate for the Hivos Social Innovation Award.

    Although some people feel uncomfortable talking about population growth, there should be no need if the conversation is rooted in empowerment, women's rights and education. doclink

    Youth Involvement

    dl516 FOUND 032717 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 031119 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 030673 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029450 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029389 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029245 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029154 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029121 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M`;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029090 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029070 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;M`M`;M`M`;Economics_commons`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 028881 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 028383 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 027090 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 024426 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 022190 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021839 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021490 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 020792 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021645 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021251 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_youthInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_youthInvolvement

    A Seattle High School is Taking Birth Control Access to the Next Level

       May 27, 2015, Grist   By: Eve Andrews

    Chief Sealth International is a Seattle public school is in a diverse neighborhood on the southwest end of the Seattle. In the school-based health center students can get treatment for sore throats bandages for sprained ankles, and IUDs, as well as other forms of birth control .

    The American College of Obstretricians and Gynecologists formally recommended LARC's -- Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives -- as the best ways for teen girls to avoid unwanted pregnancies. And Seattle's public health department decided these should be available in school based medical clinics.

    LARC's are the most costly of birth control. These are made possible by a state medicaid program to be available to minors.

    In-school LARC placement was made possible in part by Take Charge, a Washington State Medicaid program that's specifically targeted toward minors seeking contraceptive services. Because of Take Charge, girls under 19 who don't want to use their parents' private insurance to get birth control have a way to get contraception in school at no cost.

    The clinic as a very supportive, confidential environment where students can come in on their own terms and get counseling for birth control methods based on efficacy and what makes sense for their own bodies.

    One of the greatest benefits of the clinic is the degree to which it's opened up the conversation around birth control in the school. Girls will openly trade stories about what kind of contraception they're using. doclink

    Invest in Adolescents and Young People

       August 2014, Women Deliver

    doclink

    Malawi: FPAM Engages Ku Youths to Fight Overpopulation

       May 2, 2014, AllAfrica.com   By: Davie Munkhondya

    The Family Planning Association of Malawi (FPAM) manager said there is a great need for the young population of the country to get to know their sexual reproductive rights which will assist them to the claim family planning methods.

    She, however, bemoaned cultural attitudes towards sexual reproductive issues as one of the hardships fuelling overpopulation as most parents do not want to talk about such issues to their children because they feel it is not normal to do so.

    FPAM is working in four T/A's in Kasungu namely: Mwase, Kaomba, Lukwa and Santhe where, with funding from the University of North Carolina (UNC), the young generation is being drilled in issues concerning their sexual reproductive health rights so that they make right decisions. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: this is extremely important because half the world's population is age 25 or younger and thus there is a high potential for birth rates to rise.

    How to Empower Youth to Change the World (video)

       September 20, 2013, Impatient Optimists   By: Elena Sonnino

    During UN Week world leaders, entrepreneurs and innovators gathered in New York City for events like the Social Good Summit, the Clinton Global Initiative and of course, the meetings of the UN General Assembly. Discussions were held on the Millenium Development Goals (or MDGs) with a heavy emphasis on addressing issues to achieve the goals we want to see in place by 2030, as a global community. The answer for reaching our goals by 2030 is easy: we need to empower youth to be change agents.

    What is a change agent you ask?


    BAVC Map Your World
    from Grainger-Monsen Newnham on Vimeo.

    The "how" of how to empower youth to be change agents is to let them be kids and develop their own ideas- wherever they are in the range of potential social good actions.

    The answer is simple- we simply let them "do." We let them dream and think. We give our youth the tools to collaborate and problem solve, brainstorm and reflect. We empower them to believe that their voice matters without judging or criticizing their ideas.

    A new study conducted by the Women's Philanthropy Institute at Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy and the United Nations Foundation found that 9 out of 10 American youth between the ages eight and 19 give money to organizations dedicated to charitable causes. Tweens and teens want to give, participate and have an impact- it is up to us to support and empower them.

    Our children need to know that we believe in their ideas and potential as change agents. doclink

    Considering that half the world's population is under 25, there is much to be done in involving young people.

    Islamabad Survey Finds Low Reproductive Rights Awareness Among Adolescents

       September 8, 2013, Express Tribune (Pakistan)   By: Sehrish Wasif

    According to the Express Tribune, a survey conducted in eight districts of the Islamabad Capital Territory by Hayat Life Line, found that, out of 5,670 adolescent respondents, only 23.4% of girls and 27.1% of boys understood their sexual and reproductive health rights. Results varied by district. Only 42% could identify some forms of gender-based violence in society. Of those, 73% identified forced marriages as the most common form. 42% could identify physical changes related to puberty, but only 8% could identify emotional changes linked with puberty.

    The author attributes this knowledge gap to parents not knowing or not discussing sexual rights information with their children. The report recommended parent counseling combined with gender separated peer programs in the schools, and additional support from the media. The objective is to raise awareness concerning the emotional aspects of puberty, the legal rights of adolescents, the social protections available to them, complications and other consequences of pregnancy during adolescence, and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

    The report also called for advocating that government policy include the addition of a culturally sensitive sexual and reproductive health and rights components in the school and college curricula, complete with teacher training, as needed. doclink

    Make Women Matter

       September 8, 2013

    A unique website aimed at educating young people about sex education and reproductive health. Lots of 'vodcasts' by young radio journalists. doclink

    Thanks to Better Sex Ed, California's Teen Birth Rate Has Plummeted by 60 Percent

       July 19, 2013, Think Progress   By: Tara Culp-ressler

    California's teen birth rate has dropped 60% since 1991, according to new data from the state's health department.

    Public health experts attribute this to the requirement that California's public schools to offer comprehensive sex ed classes with scientifically accurate information about birth control. Family planning programs that provide community-based resources to teens were also credited with lowering rates.

    Overall, the United States' teen pregnancy rate has been plummeting due to teens gaining better access to contraceptive methods and opting to use birth control as soon as they become sexually active. Community-based youth programs are one of the most effective strategies of instilling teens with healthy attitudes and safe approaches toward sexuality.

    Teen pregnancy rates remain high in the South where adolescents there tend to receive ineffective abstinence education, and are more likely to lack access to birth control resources. doclink

    'i Have Seen My Friends Die': Why We Need to Talk Frankly About Girls' Reproductive Health

       July 9, 2013, Huffington Post

    Last year at the London Family Planning Summit a global movement was catalyzed to ensure that 120 million more women and girls have access to contraception by 2020. World Population Day 2013 focuses on adolescent pregnancy. Complications in pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death among adolescent girls ages 15-19 in low- and middle-income countries.

    One in three of girls under 18 in the developing world are married; many without their consent. 15% of all unsafe abortions in low- and middle-income countries are among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years.

    Because of these alarming numbers, we need to talk frankly and openly; we cannot shy away from tough conversations when girls are at risk.

    Young women face barriers when they seek contraception or access to information and commodities to practice safer sex. This must stop.

    A young woman in Ethiopia, Haregnesh, says girls she knows who were very young when they got married and starting having children and she has see some of them die. "I have seen educated people and I saw the difference in their lives. ... I watched as they had no food to eat or feed their children and they just kept getting pregnant and having babies. I could see that they were suffering and I wanted to go to school." A Pathfinder International program in Amhara, Ethiopia supports girls to continue their studies. Haregnesh's strength and resolve to stay in school, as well as talk openly about girls' education, early marriage, and childbirth, has shifted the approach to girls' education in her family and in her community.

    Haregnesh's father, who had not wanted her to attend school said. "Haregnesh is our third child and she made all the change happen in our family. My three younger children now attend school as well."

    We must commit to ensuring adolescent girls have the support and resources they need to delay marriage and childbirth, stay in school, and start their adult lives the way each of them want to. doclink

    Karen Gaia Pitts says: it is important to note that patriarchal attitudes can be changed. That is why I am such a fan of programs like PAI's or the Population Media Center soap operas.

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    MicroCredit

    dl516 FOUND 028174 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 028084 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 025628 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 025583 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 024124 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 023554 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 021963 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 019614 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 015867 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Economics_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 009066 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs WhatWorks_microCredit`B ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 014455 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 012747 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 012609 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Economics_news`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 012619 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 012511 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Economics_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 012159 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 012190 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 009937 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 008191 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 008156 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 008134 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs WhatWorks_microCredit`M;Links_reproHealth`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 005869 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_microCredit` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 006480 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs Test_testItem`M;ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_microCredit` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 004474 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_microCredit` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 004503 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs Test_testItem`M;ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_microCredit` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 005364 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_microCredit` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 005737 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs Economics_Item`M;ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_microCredit` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 009067 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit
    dl516 FOUND 009068 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_microCredit ..sectsubs WhatWorks_microCredit`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_microCredit

       1998,

    Micro Credit is small loans for low-income people to borrow to start income-generating projects. Part of a comprehensive approach to empowering women and ensuring a stable population level, it is channeled to the poorest citizens in a country. According to the 1997 United Nations Development Report, women comprise 2/3 of the poorest citizens in each country. Supporting women's efforts to achieve economic self-sufficiency also helps to slow population growth. Women who are earning an income often choose to have smaller families, have more ability to pay for their own family-planning needs, and choose to send their sons and daughters to school, which often leads to greater spacing between generations an important component of slowing population growth globally. doclink

    U.S.: Microfinance: How it Lost Its Way and Betrayed the Poor

       October 9, 2012, New York Times

    Microfinance was supposed to bring upward mobility to millions of people. Kiva and other organizations have let millions of people lend money to struggling entrepreneurs. But a new blockbuster book by a former industry insider is exposing the dark side of the micro-lending world. In a special co-production with KALW radio, Hugh Sinclair, the author of Confessions of a Microfinance Heretic, tells the story of how he learned the dirty truths behind the banking sector that's creeping across the developing world.

    Follow the link in the headline to hear this provocative audio broadcast. I don't know whether to believe it or not, but the speaker, Hugh Sinclair, seems knowledgeable and sincere.

    A Response from CFI at ACCION to Hugh Sinclair's blog post http://www.microdinero.com/index.php/english/nota/5271/a-response-from-cfi-at-accion-to-hugh-sinclairs-blog-post

    More, from the New York Times, at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/14/world/14microfinance.html?pagewanted=1&_r=0 doclink

    Bangladesh: Women Hurting Women

       September 29, 2012, New York Times   By: Nicholas D. Kristof

    It would be nice to think that women who achieve power would want to help women at the bottom. But the acts of one female leader show that women in power can be every bit as contemptible as men.

    Sheikh Hasina, prime minister of Bangladesh driven Muhammad Yunus from his job as managing director of Grameen Bank. Yunus, is the founder of Grameen Bank and champion of the economic empowerment of women around the world. He won a Nobel Peace Prize for his pioneering work in microfinance, focused on helping women lift their families out of poverty.

    Since last month, her government has tried to seize control of the bank from its 5.5 million small-time shareholders, almost all of them women, who collectively own more than 95% of the bank. The government has also started various investigations of Yunus and his finances and taxes

    We see a woman who has benefited from evolving gender norms using her government powers to destroy the life's work of a man who has done as much for the world's most vulnerable women as anybody on earth.

    Bangladesh is a prime example of the returns from investing in women. It invested in girls' education, and today more than half of its high school students are female -- an astonishing achievement for an impoverished Muslim country.

    The average Bangladeshi woman now has 2.2 children, down from 6 in 1980. Bringing women into the mainstream also seems to have soothed extremism, which is much less of a concern than in Pakistan (where female literacy in the tribal areas is only 3%).

    Secretary of State Hillary Clinton commented: "I highly respect Muhammad Yunus, and I highly respect the work that he has done, and I am hoping to see it continue without being in any way undermined or affected by any government action." Former secretaries of state, George Shultz and Madeleine Albright, have asked Sheikh Hasina to back off.

    Sheikh Hasina has been disappointing in other ways, turning a blind eye to murders widely attributed to the security services, for example.

    Despite this bad example, we need more women in leadership posts at home and around the world, from presidential palaces to corporate boards. The evidence suggests that diverse leadership leads to better decision making, and I think future generations of female leaders may be more attentive to women's issues than the first. doclink

    Kenya: Microfinance: Women Pull Together Against Poverty

       April 14, 2011, InterPress Service

    39 women in the Kiambu District of Central Kenya joined together to form the Consolata Self Help Group, which was linked with a microfinance institution known as the Pamoja Women Development Program (PAWDEP).

    Each member of the Consolata group was to put the equivalent of $2.50 into a common kitty each month. Members presenting a workable business idea can then borrow money from the combined savings at an interest rate of 5%; the loan is repayable at the end of three months.

    Members' loans are limited to two and a half times the capital they have accumulated in savings with the group; for example, a member who has accumulated $100 in savings can take out a loan of $250. In this way 40% of the loan is guaranteed against money the borrower herself has put into the scheme if she defaults.

    Esther, a participant in the program, is the proprietor of a dairy project with 15 cows, delivering 100 litres of milk daily to the nearby milk collection centre in her home village.

    After starting with one cow, she repaid the first loan from the proceeds of selling milk and then borrowed 625 dollars to buy a second cow. Milk sales again covered repayment, and a series of larger loans from the Consolata group steadily built her operations.

    The other members of the Consolata group have experienced similar rapid growth, establishing small businesses or farming.

    PAWDEP currently works with savings schemes whose combined membership totals 48,000 women in the Central, Eastern, Rift Valley and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. There are several similar institutions in Kenya, helping women and youth with enhanced access to credit.

    A 2010 report published by international development charity ActionAid - "Fertile Ground: How Governments and Donors Can Halve Hunger" - based on data gathered in Kenya, Uganda and Malawi - suggests that this kind of support for women small-scale farmers could halve hunger on the African continent by 2015.

    While many African women would find the benefits of enhanced access to credit limited by legal and traditional patterns of land tenure, domestic power relations; rural men and women alike also struggle to overcome weak infrastructure that denies them water, access to markets, or even sound advice and agricultural technologies -- microfinance still contributes powerfully to making the most of resources available to rural people. doclink

    Microfinance Institutions Prefer Lending to Women

       April 8, 2011, The New Times

    Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) prefer to give loans to women and their cooperatives because they are trustworthy in loan repayments compared to men, enabling them to do business better.

    With their increasing responsibilities in their families, women have exhibited a culture of trustworthy and diversification of doing multi businesses to raise enough income, says the MFI Vision Finance Company, which provides financial and non-financial services to the economically productive poor Rwandans especially women.

    "Women are trustworthy clients; they know how to use the loans effectively by investing in many businesses. When they are in cooperatives the trust is much stronger that you don't get worried of defaulters." doclink

    Kudos to Muhammad Yunus, Instigator of Micro Credit

       August 16, 2009, Times of Trenton

    Muhammad Yunus worked for over thirty years giving micro-credit loans that bring a better quality of life to the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh. He founded the Grameen Bank which loans as makes loans for as little as $9, without collateral, to start small businesses such as selling candy or toys, buying cellular phones and charging for calls, or purchasing weaving materials.

    He has recently received the Medal of Freedom. In 2006 the Nobel Peace Prize Committee awarded him and Grameen Bank its 2006 prize and said: "Lasting peace cannot be achieved unless large population groups find ways in which to break out of poverty." The Grameen Bank model has been duplicated in more than 100 countries, from Uganda to Malaysia to Chicago's South Side.

    Women make up 97% of the 6.83 million borrowers because they were found to be the best risk. In a Muslim-dominated country where rural women are often not allowed to touch money or work outside the home, this was a ground-breaking movement. Guidelines for borrowers to follow include discipline, unity, courage and hard work; repair houses; grow vegetables; educate children; and keep families small.

    The link between lower fertility and reduced poverty has long been recognized. The Independent UK news, citing a report from Parliament, noted, "The earth's population will approach an unsustainable total of 10.5 billion unless contraception is put back at the top of the agenda for international efforts to alleviate global poverty...and even help to avert global warming."

    from an LTE by Bonnie Tillery, volunteer population issues coordinator for the New Jersey Chapter of the Sierra Club doclink

    Karen Gaia says: it has been shown that, when women are able to raise money themselves, they feel they have more control over their destiny and find ways to have smaller, healthier families.

    Banking on Women

       January 16, 2009, AllAfrica.com

    We are not waiting. We are moving," says Pilda Modjadji, a founding member of the Pankop Women Farmers Forum. "We mean business."

    The Pankop group, in Mpumalanga, South Africa started with the goal of growing fruit collectively and using the proceeds to supplement family diets, raise incomes and pay school tuition fees. But the village offered few job prospects and their children were going off to the cities.

    Determined to create an alternative source of employment, the women, with the support of traditional chiefs and municipal authorities, set up a fruit and vegetable dehydration plant. The Pankop group needed the equivalent of $100,000 and got the funds from local commercial banks because a South African organization created in 1996 by the US non-profit Shared Interest and the Swiss-based Recherches et Applications de Financements Alternatifs au Developpement (RAFAD), put up $70,000 in loan guarantees.

    With the first loan, the women converted an old school dormitory into a functioning plant and hired 65 young people .

    With a second loan of $120,000, they increased the number of employees to 200, working in shifts.

    Their latest loan is worth about $1 mn, and with those funds, the women plan to meet European Union health and safety standards and start exporting their produce.

    Increasingly, private equity funds and philanthropic groups and individuals are making it possible to leverage significantly larger loans.

    Donna Katzin, president of Thembani's parent organization, Shared Interest, told Africa Renewal that her group does more than create access to financing but identifies projects and partners, helps develop business proposals and hooks them up with banks to provide the credit.

    We are helping to change the way the banks operate. We are introducing them to a new set of people who need their capital."

    Women own about 48% of all enterprises in Africa.

    Non-governmental organizations like Shared Interest are not the only ones using guarantees to improve women's access to credit. The International Labour Organization and the African Development Bank (ADB) have jointly created a $10 million guarantee scheme called Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs (GOWE), with the ADB and IFC managing the operation.

    GOWE is intended to help about 400 women entrepreneurs across Africa to secure access to financing by 2011.

    To qualify, their businesses must be at least two years old and show potential for growth. Those who are approved can borrow between $20,000 and $400,000, but are expected to raise 20% of the expansion costs on their own.

    In Kenya, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) has partnered with Equity Bank to provide $81 million in loans exclusively to women.

    In Nigeria, until recently, enterprising women with solid businesses could not get loans because they lacked collateral requirements or credit histories.

    But Access Bank, approached the IFC, which provided it with a $15 million line of credit for lending to businesses owned by women.

    The loans were accompanied by business development advice and training. In Kenya, 61% of household entrepreneurs are women, and in 1981, a group formed the Kenya Women Finance Trust (KWFT), a microfinance lender dedicated to women.

    But as commercial banks have realized that lending to women can be profitable, loans to organizations like KWFT have become cheaper, enabling it to expand its reach.

    Today it is the largest microfinance institution for women in East and Central Africa.

    KWFT realized that emergency health costs often forced women to raid their business capital to pay for health care. In response, the trust launched a medical insurance programme for its clients and their families.

    For a yearly payment of about $60, KWFT clients get policies to cover expenses and also draw weekly allowances during hospital admissions. If they become disabled, they receive a lump-sum payout.

    Once Equity Bank took on that administrative cost and collected the tiny amounts, the sums totalled over $20 million annually. Equity Bank not only saved the insurance companies the costs of collecting small premiums and earned a commission in the process, but also ensured that its clients got the insurance they needed. doclink

    Zimbabwe;: State Embarks on Women Empowerment Programme

       September 25, 2007, Africa News Service

    Minister of Women Affairs, said Government had embarked on a project to empower and promote women for sustainable development.

    Speaking in Harare, Cde Muchinguri said this was being done through community development and poverty alleviation initiatives. Government, she said, had established a fund for women's clubs aimed at empowering women to alleviate poverty.

    She urged women to access the funds. There are over 5 000 women's clubs which provide opportunities for women to develop their potential through the acquisition of life skills. Nestle Zimbabwe was launching the Maggi cooking competition, which complements Government's efforts to uplift the living standards of women. The competition seeks to promote hygiene, creativity and cooking skills among women. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Education

    dl516 FOUND 033138 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024832 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 032681 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 032354 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 032244 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 030736 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 030582 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 030393 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 030291 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 029184 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Sustainability_Agriculture`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 029126 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;M`M`;M`M`;Impacts_GlobalWarmingItem`M`;M`M`;M`M`;Sustainability_Agriculture`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 029120 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;M`M`;M`M`;HumanImpacts_landOveruse`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 028664 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_education`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 028551 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 028298 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 028289 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_education`M`;WhatWorks_violence`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 028207 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 026910 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_education`M`;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 026597 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_education`M`;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 026595 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;NewsDigest_pointsSolutions`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_education`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 025914 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 025643 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 025294 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 025323 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 025187 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 025212 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024944 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024832 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024694 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024588 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024557 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 023939 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024283 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 024163 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 023995 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M;HumanImpacts_urbanization`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 022528 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 023472 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 022536 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 022429 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 021767 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 021951 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 021782 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 020405 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 020332 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 020185 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 019942 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 019680 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 019382 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 019369 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 019113 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_education`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 019086 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_education`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 018783 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 018692 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 018754 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 018570 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 018713 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 018494 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 018050 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 017781 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 017779 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhyPopMatters_item`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 017550 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 017348 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 017359 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 017049 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 017144 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 016844 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 016832 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 016854 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 016587 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 016187 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 016460 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 015589 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 015772 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 015540 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 015585 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 014442 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 014343 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 014366 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013796 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Bush_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013638 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013626 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013231 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013515 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013399 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013161 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013064 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 013065 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012858 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012888 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012316 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012548 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012421 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012053 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Abortion_new`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012241 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 012092 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 011377 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 011220 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 011099 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 010856 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 010828 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 010825 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 010611 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 010117 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 006439 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 009995 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 006496 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 004020 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 006390 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_education` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 003990 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_education` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 003883 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs ArchivesMay-Aug2002_item`;WhatWorks_education` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 004517 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_education` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education
    dl516 FOUND 009037 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_education ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_education

       November 2010

    Ethiopia poster advocating that girls should be allowed to go to school

    Ethiopian poster showing a little girl who is sad that she cannot go to school while some of her friends are allowed. She is taking care of her brother or sister, while others must gather firewood or tend the sheep. doclink

    Men Are Stepping Up to Fight Child Marriage in Pakistan

    Men make up the majority of a rights group working to protect girls and women.
       August 14, 2015, Take Part   By: Amber Dance

    A non-profit Pakistan-based organization named Sujag Sansar (SSO) focuses on human rights issues not often addressed by politicians, including women's rights, child marriage, educational access, environmental protection, and clean drinking water.

    To combat child marriage, they produced a play depicting a young girl forced into marriage and the struggles of life as a child bride. By the end of one performance, several were weeping openly and many resolved to protect their daughters from the same fate. In Dadu, one of the provinces where SSO operates, girls are often married off when they're as young as 10 -- even though legislators recently raised the age to 18 for women, according to Birhamani. SSO's research indicates 35 to 37% of marriages in Sindh province involve child brides. Families often offer their daughter as a bride in exchange for money. While Pakistan law requires that a woman consent to her partner, the law is rarely enforced and many women are unaware of that right.

    There are many problems associated with child marriage: teens are more likely to die in childbirth than older women. Young wives usually aren't allowed to attend school and have little hope of earning money to support their families. Women fall victim to domestic violence, or the families of the married couple may argue and feud, which could escalate into tribal battles and honor killings.

    Some religious leaders preach say it's against Islamic law for a girl to live with her parents after puberty.

    When families still attempt to pursue child marriages, SSO recruits community leaders to try to prevent the marriages. The organization also educates religious leaders about the consequences and so far, 35 locals have pledged to verify ages before performing a wedding. SSO has also organized villagers into committees that notify police and journalists if they become aware of an underage marriage being planned; since 2010, they've prevented 33 underage marriages in the district.

    Seven out of 10 SSO board members and 200 of the 300 volunteers are male. This is because cultural traditions discourage women from working outside the home, according to Mashooque Birhamani, SSO's chief executive officer. He hopes this will change in time. "These issues are basic issues that are keeping our society from progressing. The time will come when women will be empowered and they will replace men [in the organization] and work for their rights," he says.

    SSO has also opened primary schools and enrolled 547 girls since 2006. Graduates hope to gain admission to secondary schools in cities and eventually universities. Clean water is also a major issue-many citizens, usually women and children, must walk five or more miles in search of drinking water. The task often keeps children, particularly girls, out of school.

    SSO's theater performances encourages members of the audience to advocate peacefully for the government to provide a water supply. Other projects include advocating for preservation of forests and assisting people affected by flooding.

    "We are seeing that the future will be bright...with betterment and good hope for all," Birhamani said. doclink

    The Afghan Institute of Learning's Mobile Literacy Program Uses Texting to Teach and Expands Communities

       May 15, 2015, Global Fund For Women

    At the Afghan Institute of Learning, women and girls are taught to read and write using mobile phones and text messaging (SMS). SMS not only increases literacy levels, it allows program participants to develop self-confidence and to connect with their communities.

    The Afghan Institute of Learning program is a four-month curriculum that involves classroom instruction, interactive teaching methods, and hands-on practice. The classes, which typically consist of two teachers and 30-35 students, combine AIL's proven literacy curriculum with text messaging to accelerate the pace of learning.

    At the beginning of the program, about 80% of the women and girls participating cannot read or can only recognize the basic alphabet. By the end of the four-month program, 80% are able to read at the fourth grade reading level or higher. In a traditional classroom setting this kind of progress typically takes 18 months. The difference is attributed to the use of technology! So far, almost 1,000 women and girls have completed the program.

    Most of the girls who participate in the program have limited social circles and live very far away from each other. Text messaging allows them to be in touch with one another. AIL believes this helps support an accelerated learning process. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: As long as the girls continue to be allowed to use text messaging, this is the path to education, which is one of the main ways that fertility rates are lowered. Still, Afghani women need more empowerment than this.

    Displaced Children in South Sudan Continue to Learn

    Mobile technology lets young readers continue with lessons
       February 15, 2015, USAID

    Since the conflict began in South Sudan in December 2013, nearly 1,200 schools in the most conflict-affected states have closed. An additional 400,000 children and adolescents have dropped out due to the crisis, and some 90 schools are occupied by fighting forces or internally displaced persons.

    The children of Matok have been able to continue learning with a simple and mobile USAID literacy program called All Children Reading.

    Before the conflict began, the children were introduced to reading in their mother tongue, Dinka Cham, using digital audio players provided by ACROSS, a South Sudanese NGO that implements the literacy program.

    When ACROSS staff member John Chol visited them in May 2014, the children welcomed him with songs they had learned from the lessons. ACROSS conducted a simple survey that indicated the children could read their mother-tongue alphabet, short words and simple sentences.

    USAID launched the All Children Reading program in 2011 as part of a Grand Challenge for Development to improve literacy rates among children in developing countries. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: Education is one of the contributors to a lower fertility rate.

    Global Population and Environment 101

       January 7, 2015, Sierra Club Global Population and Environment Program

    See http://www.sierraclub.org/population doclink

    Mobile Devices Improve Literacy

       April 23, 2014, Tech Crunch   By: Catherine Shu

    A survey of 5,000 people in Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe cites data from the United Nations that says more than 6 billion people have access to a working phone, which it claims means that 6.8 billion people, or most of the world's population, can potentially have access to reading material. "In places where physical books are scarce, mobile phones are plentiful. And while mobile phones are still used primarily for basic communication, even the simplest phones are a gateway to long-form text," says the report.

    The phone project was created in partnership with Nokia, which uses featurephones, and Worldreader, a free mobile reading platform that targets markets in Asia and Africa.

    The Worldreader Mobile can compress data and reduce cost of reading to just two to three cents for every 1,000 pages read. Only 18% of the people surveyed said the cost of data was a concern, while 50% said they never worry about the price

    Though 77% of mobile readers are male, girls and women read up to six times more than boys and men. One-third of parents surveyed said they read regularly to their children from their mobile phones.

    Worldreader was founded in 2010 by David Risher, a former executive at Microsoft and Amazon, and Colin McElwee, a former marketing director at Barcelona's ESADE Business School. doclink

    Training Teachers to Empower Girls in Nepal

       April 21, 2014, Women Deliver   By: Rehema Namukose

    Developing nations like Nepal have the lowest levels of quality education systems, and that is why the Global Fund for Women, Nepal Training of Teachers Program (NTTP), and Her Turn -The Girls Education and Empowerment Program have raised funds through Catapult to address this issue and also extend education to remote villages of Nepal, where girls between the ages of 10 and 14 are extremely susceptible to child marriage or sex slavery. The program aims to train teachers and empower girls through workshops in rural areas of Sindupolchowk and North Gorkha with little access to education. Despite challenges like political instability, the program has played an important role in empowering girls.

    With funding support from the Catapult community and the Global Fund for Women, the program has trained 150 village teachers, and has conducted 400 Girl Empowerment Workshops since April 2013. doclink

    Iran's Birth Control Policy Sent Birthrate Tumbling

    Plunging birthrates helped usher in changes concerning the role of women
       July 22, 2012   By: Kenneth R. Weiss

    Since the 1980s, Iran has experienced the largest and one of the fastest drops in fertility ever recorded - from about seven births per woman to fewer than two (or, by year, from a high of 3.2% in 1986 to just 1.2% at its lowest point). It confounded all conventional wisdom that this could happen in an Islamic republic, said Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, a demographer at the University of Tehran. But it happened largely because of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Iran's supreme leader. Khomeini had earlier encouraged large families, but after the war with Iraq he decided the economy could no longer support a rapidly growing population. In the late 1980s he issued fatwas making birth control available and encouraged conservative Muslims to use them.

    With his backing, Iran's Health Ministry launched a nationwide campaign introducing contraceptives - pills, condoms, IUDs, implants, tubal ligations, and vasectomies and providing them free at government clinics, including thousands of new rural health centers. An Iranian factory produced more than 70 million condoms a year. Throughout the country clinics supported the changes. Dozens of mobile teams offered free vasectomies and tubal ligations in remote parts of the country, promoting contraception as a way to leave more time between births and help reduce maternal and child mortality. At a center in Tehran, brides-to-be, some covered head to toe in black chadors, filed into a room with their bearded bridegrooms where they confronted packaged samples of condoms, birth control pills and intrauterine devices pinned to a bulletin board.

    In 1993, Parliament passed further legislation withdrawing food coupons, paid maternity leave, and social welfare subsidies after the third child. Hour-long birth control classes and counseling in family planning were required before a couple could marry. "Our aim is to help you know how to avoid an unwanted child," said a government-trained midwife. "The trend among "modern Iranians," she said, "is to have one child, two at most." Her no-nonsense PowerPoint presentation covered male and female anatomy, menstrual cycles, fertility and birth control.

    Plunging birthrates led to social changes. With smaller families, parents could invest more in their children's education. Khomeini had resegregated schools by gender, so that even the most conservative families could send girls to school without worrying that having their daughters mix with males would place family honor at risk. Female students soon outnumber males 65% to 35% in public universities, leading to calls in parliament for affirmative action for men. As women became better educated, their influence within the family grew. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, an Iran expert at Virginia Tech. said, "Without intending to, Iran's clerical leadership helped to foster "the empowerment of Iranian women." Woman still have fewer legal rights than men and are limited in the jobs they can hold and what they can wear, but more of them now attend universities and delay childbirth.

    Later, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sought to reverse the trend toward smaller families through speeches and economic sanctions, but he was widely ignored. "Iranian women are not going back," said Sussan Tahmasebi, an Iranian women's rights leader now living in the United States. doclink

    Art says: By demonstrating how a population problem can be reversed so quickly, Iran now serves as a model for other nations. But not all Islamic nations would start from such a supportive baseline. The reversal occurred because: 1) the idea came from nation's most powerful cleric, and 2) advanced systems of public schools and public health services already existed, allowing for millions of Iranian women to complete high school or college and quickly obtain family planning advice. This empowerment allowed them to continue practicing birth control even after support for the policy waned. Turkey, another advanced Islamic nation with a similar baseline, had similar success. Since many Islamic clerics distrust western influences, it would be difficult for the UN or any NGO to get them to support family planning as fervently as Khomeini did. Also, few girls attend school at all in several Muslim nations, so female empowerment remains unlikely in the near future. None-the-less, this article makes clear that winning genuine clerical and government support can be key to success.

    Karen Gaia says: there is also the example of Bangladesh, another Muslim country, whose government had the help of USAID to develop its family planning program. But it had to start almost 'from scratch' in order to educate girls, and also 'from scratch' to employ women as health care workers, which turned out to be another way to empower women.

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2 3

    Media, Soap Operas, Sex Education

    dl516 FOUND 032607 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 032588 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 031420 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 031132 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 030622 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 030593 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 030438 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029901 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029496 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029516 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029232 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029282 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029245 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029207 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 029187 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 028742 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 028594 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 028591 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 028520 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 028156 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 028093 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 028010 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M`;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 027875 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 027704 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 027422 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 027394 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`A`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 027361 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 027338 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 027087 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 026972 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 026765 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 026762 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M`;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M`;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 026755 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Oceana`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 026634 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M`;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M`;NewsDigest_pointsSolutions`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025828 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025859 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025783 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025573 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025564 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025496 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025367 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025161 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 025146 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024449 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024609 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023950 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024424 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024326 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024316 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs California_pregnancyPrevention`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024273 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024265 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024263 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs India_progress`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024217 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024216 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs Mexico_sustainability`M;Mexico_familyPlanning`M;Impacts_GlobalWarmingItem`M;WhatWorks_choice`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Grassroots_presentations`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024214 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024195 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;BirthControl_choices`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 024138 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023962 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;USpopulation_population`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023853 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023739 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023665 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022567 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022569 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023504 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023593 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023512 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023495 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023368 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023317 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022605 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021235 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023115 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 023114 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022964 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022663 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022756 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022201 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022237 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022447 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021584 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022044 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 022280 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021840 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021583 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021690 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021672 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021801 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021789 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021175 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021643 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021644 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs India_progress`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021451 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021287 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021207 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021011 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020793 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020529 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021086 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020525 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 021084 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020724 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020664 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020757 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020288 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020355 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_statesRegions`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020162 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020241 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020242 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019958 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020254 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020113 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 020055 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019891 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_citiesStates`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019189 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019570 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019577 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019130 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019442 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018832 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019103 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018992 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019085 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_citiesStates`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018821 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019045 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018820 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 019076 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018699 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018780 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018500 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018723 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018568 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018354 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018343 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018026 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018069 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017885 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017963 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 018011 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017539 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_Europe`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017510 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017281 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017272 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017183 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017213 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;SexualBehavior_index`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017165 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017351 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 017353 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016996 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016990 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016902 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016642 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016611 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;India_progress`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016660 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016303 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016419 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Religion_Vatican`M;AIDS_STDs`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016357 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016259 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016186 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 016167 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_philanthropists`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 015757 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 015311 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 015271 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014883 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014400 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;FundingPolitics_news`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014399 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014517 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014364 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 013975 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014053 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014001 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 013989 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014367 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 014133 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;AIDS_news`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 013786 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 013755 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_youngAdults`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 013767 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd
    dl516 FOUND 013338 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_mediaSexEd ..sectsubs Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_mediaSexEd

    When Sex Ed Discusses Gender Inequality, Sex Gets Safer

    A new study shows a 'striking' difference in effectiveness between programs that address gender and power, and those that don't
       April 27, 2015, Atlantic Monthly   By: Julie Beck

    "Comprehensive sex education" is often used in opposition to "abstinence-only," but that only means that, at a baseline, it includes information about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. What would it mean to be truly "comprehensive?"

    A new study published in International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, reviewed 22 sex-education programs for adolescents and young adults and compares how effective they were in reducing pregnancy and STIs. Ten of the programs had at least one lesson on gender and power, and 80% of them saw significant decreases in pregnancy or STIs compared with a control group. Of the 12 programs that did not address these issues, 17% led to those positive outcomes.

    Other research shows that women who report having less power in their relationships than their male partners have higher rates of HIV infection and other STIs,

    Some of the curriculums in study author Nicole Haberland's study asked questions such as, "What is this ad saying to you about what a woman is supposed to look like and act like?" Haberland says. "What are guys supposed to feel and act like?"

    Jane does not use a condom because she doesn't want to. It's because she's afraid her boyfriend is going to leave her. "Helping kids identify the inequality in those power dynamics and how it affects all of us in our relationships," is important, cites Haberland.

    According to the Guttmacher Institute, only 13 states have laws requiring that sex education be medically accurate, while 19 require that instruction on the importance of engaging in sexual activity only within marriage be provided.

    There are emotions and social pressures at play, and it seems that when teachers address them, sex ed gets a little closer to being truly comprehensive. doclink

    It's Not Enough to Just Mention Condoms -- Sex Education Should Be Sex-Positive

       April 22, 2015, RH Reality Check   By: Amanda Marcotte

    Early in his administration, Obama stopped the requirement that sex education programs teach that abstinence is the only legitimate way to prevent pregnancy and STI transmission. Some states have resisted, but at least the Federal government no longer requires abstinence only. Still, although "abstinence-only" is fading, most sex education programs still imply that sex is evil and could even kill you.

    After reviewing some of the content in her son's sex education class at East Lansing High School, Medical historian Alice Dreger joined friends who wanted her to get involved in school board debates over what exactly would be taught in sex ed classes. Administrators emphasized that they do not teach abstinence-only and that "the curriculum (which was developed by a crisis pregnancy center) also reviews contraception choices." Most parents would settle for that. But Dreger concluded that the sex education she observed was more terror-based than abstinence-based." Abstinence-only educators basically hold to the "don't even think about it" line where contraception is concerned. The victory over that approach had not been as big as she and others had hoped. Based on her account, the current class teaches that sex is a shameful activity, premarital sex is evil, people who do it are dirty, and men and women should adhere to traditional gender roles. The new program was not "abstinence-only," but conservatives were still using "sex ed" to brand kids as failures if they chose to have sex without marriage.

    The rebranding effort is not all locally based. Congress is allocating $25 million annually to "risk-avoidance education" based on many real and imagined consequences that are likely to follow premarital sex. This amounts to new packaging for abstinence-only. Amanda Marcotte compares this to schools trying to convince kids that owning a pet is evil by displaying pictures of ugly dog bites, telling sob stories about cat allergies, and playing games where everyone who gets a pet ends up with a serious problem. Even those who survive pet ownership end up sad because their pets will eventually die. Teaching responsible pet ownership should not make kids see pets as evil. The same applies to non-marital or pre-marital sex. Only 62% of Americans own pets, but 95% have premarital sex, and most of them find in it a positive experience. Some people may view that as bad, but most of us do not. Kids need education in responsible sexuality, but overall they should not be given negative attitudes about sex. Sex education should offer a non-slanted fact-based education that allows parents and/or religious leaders to express opinions outside the classroom if they wish.

    Most of us don't buy the implication that kids should wait a decade or more until marriage before having sex. We want our young people to grow up looking forward to a future of fun, fulfilling sex, not to teach them that it's a thing that they will probably do but should feel bad about. doclink

    Proof That Comprehensive Sex Ed Classes Actually Help Kids Put Off Having Sex

       October 21, 2014, Think Progress   By: Tara Culp-ressler

    A three-year study by a research team at the Wellesley Centers for Women compared Get Real, Planned Parenthood's (PP's) comprehensive sex ed program, with existing programs at 24 racially and economically diverse Boston area schools (some of which already offered sex ed). The results, published in the Journal of School Health, show that classes emphasizing healthy relationships and family involvement encourage middle school students (grades 6 - 8) to delay trying sex.

    Get Real's "social-emotional learning approach" teaches kids how to navigate relationships. Researchers say that Get Real's key feature is that kids get to practice communication skills both in the classroom and at home with their parents. Study leader, Sumru Erkut, said the program teaches relationship skills and provides a very strong follow-up of family involvement.

    Using test and control groups of equal size, the study found that 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls became sexually active by the end of eighth grade after completing Get Real. Previous research into standard Boston-area sex ed programs did not show such clear results for both genders. "It's certainly a very important and positive contribution," Erkut, told Think Progress. "People clap their hands over a program that can reduce HIV infections by 4%, so these numbers can be put in that context."

    "Parents tend to talk about sex earlier and more frequently with their daughters than their sons," said the paper's lead author, Jennifer Grossman. Get Real's take-home assignments got parents involved in discussions that few parents knew how to handle the on their own. Sixth grade boys who completed the family assignments were more likely to delay sex until after eighth grade.

    PP is the nation's largest sex ed provider, but is also a flashpoint in the abortion rights fight. Jen Slonaker, Vice President of Education and Training at the PP League of Mass. said. "This is exactly what we want our middle schoolers to be doing... delaying sex." But that is not the way conservatives typically view PP programs. Those who favor abstinence education believe (against contrary evidence) that teaching students about sex encourages them to become sexually active at an earlier age, and they pressure schools administrations to remove certain sex ed materials from the classroom. Most states don't require sex ed, and some prohibit any form of comprehensive sex ed. Republicans in Texas and Louisiana have even suggested that PP wants teens to get pregnant so it can give them abortions. But PP officials say the resisters are a small minority. Educators, administrators, and parents should remember that 95% of parents in high school and 93% of parents in middle school support sex education.

    PP partners with ETR to distribute its Get Real materials. Thanks to these study results, ETR's website can offer this pitch: "Research Shows It Works! Students who receive Get Real are less likely to have sex." doclink

    Art says: A small minority has prevented millions of kids from learning information that can be vital to their lives. That is one reason why the U.S. has the highest rate of teen pregnancy in the developed world.

    Judging a comprehensive sex ed program on abstinence objectives seems ironical. The U.S. has the highest rate of teen pregnancy in the developed world, but a small minority prevents millions of kids from learning skills and information that can be vital to their decision making.

    Karen Gaia says: When I was a teen girl I actually thought my parents thought it was OK to have sex. They said so little about it.

    U.S.: MTV Public Policy: How 16 and Pregnant Reduced Teen Motherhood

       August 14, 2014, Business Week   By: John Tozzi

    In 2008 the rate of unwed births was the highest ever recorded. After 2008 births to unmarried women declined each year, according to new data from the CDC.

    The steepest declines in childbearing have been recorded among unmarried black and Hispanic women, narrowing the gap with whites. And children born out of wedlock are increasingly born to partners who share a home.

    While most of the declines from 1990 to 2008 could be attributed to better access to effective contraceptives, said Melissa Kearney, an economics professor at the University of Maryland, she credits MTV's reality show 16 and Pregnant and its spinoffs for the sharp drop in births in the years after 2008.

    Kearney's and Phillip Levine's research showed how the narratives of hard lives of young mothers prompted Google searches and tweets about birth control or abortion and accounted for as much as one-third of the overall drop in teen births in the year and a half after its debut. High unemployment also contributed to the decline.

    According to Kearney's research, a hit TV show dwarfs the influence of pretty much all the public policy that could affect teen birth rates. Changes to welfare, Medicaid coverage for contraception, sex ed or abstinence curriculums, access to abortion -- all play "a very, very small role in affecting aggregate rates" of unmarried births".

    The CDC's data also shows decreases in unmarried births since 2007 for women of every age group younger than 35.

    Since the 1990s, women have been delaying childbirth as they see greater economic opportunity -- better access to education and higher-paying jobs, Kearney says.

    Teens, in particular, are staying childless by using contraception and having less sex. "The reductions in teen birth rates in particular are not driven by an increased reliance on abortion," Kearney says.

    However, in populations with the least economic opportunities, "The proportion of births .. that are outside of marriage remains staggeringly high," Kearney says. doclink

    Population Media Center Capacity Building with South-to-South Training

       April 14, 2014, GlobeNewsWire

    Population Media Center (PMC) works around the world to improve the health and well-being of people through storytelling. PMC employs writers and staff from the countries where the stories are being told so that the stories are authentic, and powerful. As PMC's work has expanded, country offices have become so proficient that PMC has begun using local staffs to provide south-to-south (one developing country to another) training.

    Gabin Kifukiau is Population Media Center's Country Representative in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In March Kifukiau and his DRC colleague traveled to Burundi, with a stop-over in Rwanda, to see how Burundians and Rwandans were operating country offices of PMC.

    "Such meetings allow mutual enrichment and have many advantages," says Kifukiau. "The most important is undoubtedly a valuable time saver in the approach used to solve potential operations management problems and implementation of program activities."

    These country teams produce long-running radio serial dramas that engage people and effect behavior change. South-to-south trainings allow the details of best practices to be transferred.

    PMC's President Bill Ryerson said "We produce long-running dramas for radio and TV which require our country teams to handle numerous tasks at once. Plus, they have to work within the framework of their country and establish partnerships for research, broadcast, distribution, and promotion. South-to-south training allows our country teams to help each other anticipate and overcome stumbling blocks."

    PMC is helping the DRC launch five radio serial dramas later this year, in the languages of Lingala, Swahili, French, Tshiluba, and Kikongo.

    Burundi launched 208-episode radio serial drama in January of 2014 and Rwanda produced a 312-episode radio serial drama from 2007 to 2009 and is currently preparing for a new program that will launch in May of 2014.

    PMC's Vice President for International Programs Kriss Barker said "The south-to-south trainings are fabulous because we get to see the country teams' excitement to share our framework and methodology with other country teams so that they can effect change within their community and create a real impact." doclink

    Celebrate Solutions: Family Planning Messages Provided in Barber Shops and Beauty Salons in Liberia

       April 14, 2014, Women Deliver   By: Sara Pellegrom

    Jhpiego and USAID's Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) have been working in collaboration with Liberia's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare to increase access to family planning information and services since 2009. Adolescent pregnancy continues to be a major problem, with approximately one-third of Liberian girls having begun childbearing between the ages of 15 and 19. The program distributes condoms in the community, engages religious leaders to promote family planning, and integrates family planning with immunization services.

    In Monrovia, the country's capital, Gbeni Taylor, a 21-year old hairstylist told of how, after becoming pregnant at 16 and seeing her friends become mothers before they were ready, she decided to partake in a community-based initiative to educate young people about family planning through barber shop and beauty salon employees. She thinks that if young people are aware of their family planning options early enough, it will allow them to stay in school and postpone having children.

    Barber shop and beauty salon employees are trained to deliver important family planning messages, hand out condoms, and refer people interested in obtaining family planning services to local hospitals. So far, since 2012, 16 employees in four barber shops and beauty salons have reached 1,100 clients and distributed 16,550 condoms.

    To broach the topic of family planning, a taboo subject in Liberia, Gbeni tries to make her clients feel comfortable and welcome by first talking to them about local politics and gossip.

    Once the customer has relaxed, Gbeni brings up family planning and asks them if they are using any method. If her client is not using family planning and is interested in learning more, Gbeni is able to counsel the woman, supply her with condoms, and offer a referral card for the closest family planning clinic. When the woman shows the referral card at the clinic, it guarantees that she will be seen quickly and provided with family planning services.

    Gbeni tells Jhpiego that family planning "will reduce the poverty rate. It will help families to be happy together, because if you have too many children, there will be no time to care for them all." doclink

    TV Lowers Birthrate

       March 19, 2014   By: Nicholas Kristof

    A remarkably effective tool has emerged in the search to lower America's teen birthrates. The MTV reality show called "16 and Pregnant" is a huge hit, spawning spinoffs like the "Teen Mom" franchise. These shows remind kids that babies cry and vomit, scream during the night and poop with abandon.

    Economists Melissa Kearney and Phillip Levine have studied why we have the highest teen pregnancy rate of any developed country ̶ almost 10 times that of Switzerland and more than twice that of Canada. Kearney and Levine found that teen births reflect poverty and carry it on to the next generation, but they also found that teen births dropped in regions with large audiences for "16 and Pregnant" and the "Teen Mom" franchise. Tweets containing the words "birth control" increased by 23% the day after each episode of "16 and Pregnant," and there were more Google searches concerning how to get birth control pills. (To ensure the success of these searches, we need clinics that offer free, long-acting contraception to teenage girls.) The study concluded that the shows reduced teenage births by 5.7% (20,000 fewer births per year or one less birth each half-hour). Since abortion rates also fell, the reduced birthrate appears to mostly result from more contraception use.

    Even as inequality and family breakdown grew worse, teen birthrates plunged by 52% since 1991. One factor Kearney and Levine credit for this decline is women having better job opportunities. For example, girls who were randomly assigned to attend Promise Academy, a middle school in Harlem Children's Zone, became pregnant less often if they had a good shot at college. But the decline greatly accelerated when MTV began airing "16 and Pregnant in 2009. "It's another reminder that great storytelling can be a powerful catalyst for change," says MTV President Stephen Friedman. These shows worked because they focused on compelling stories, not on lecturing or wagging fingers. "If the government tried this, it would have a good message, but three people would watch it," Levine said. The shows portray a better life for girls who delay childbearing.

    Another study found that before television arrived in Indian villages, 62% of women said wife beating was acceptable and men had to grant women permission to leave the house. These norms changed after women began watching soap operas showing middle-class urban families in which women weren't beaten and could leave home at will. The studies estimated that these shows nurtured as many egalitarian attitudes as five years of female education.

    The master of injecting causes into storytelling is Neal Baer, the television producer behind "ER" and "Law and Order: Special Victims Unit." Baer, a doctor who helps lead the Global Media Center for Social Impact at U.C.L.A.'s School of Public Health, wove issues like vaccination and rape-kit testing into his shows, raising awareness in ways that no news program could. Polling showed that one "ER" episode about cervical cancer doubled audience awareness of the links between the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. doclink

    Access to Family Planning Alone Won't Stop the Population Boom

       November 27, 2013, TheStar (Kenya)   By: Moses Wasamu

    Last year at an International Conference on Family Planning in London, global leaders agreed to provide 120 million more of the world's poorest women with access to modern contraceptive services and supplies by 2020. This year a follow-up meeting in Addis Ababa released its plan for 2012 - 2016. Experts again spoke of the need to expand access to family planning options, and Prof Fred Segor, Principal Secretary for Health, told the forum that the government was on course to achieve its target of 56% usage rate by 2015. He said that the government had committed $9 million to family planning programs for this year, - a big improvement over previous years. What's more, Merck Sharp & Dohme have cut and Bayer HealthCare plans to cut the prices their long-acting and reversible contraceptive implants.

    But access is not the only problem. Many women who said they wanted to delay their next pregnancy for several years were not using any modern method of contraception. Policy makers assume that improving access to contraceptives would close the gap between what women say they want and what they do. But, according to Charles Westoff of Princeton University's Office of Population Research, surveys indicate that even if contraceptives were freely available, about half the women who want fewer children would spurn them. 31% of these women rejected modern contraception due to fear of medical side effects, although Kenyan researchers said that objection is based on myths and misconceptions. Other reasons were religious prohibition (9%) and personal opposition (8%). Less than 1% cited lack of contraceptive access. 6% cited opposition from their husbands. Community Health Worker Beatrice Khalayi Shibunga, who goes door-to-door to offer family planning information in the slums of Korogocho, Nairobi says "Some women are forced to use contraceptives without the knowledge of their husbands," and Elizabeth Lule, Director of Family Planning at the Gates Foundation, says that women often choose injectable contraceptives because they can use them covertly. The Kenyan government acknowledges this concern and is developing a strategy for increasing male involvement.

    The Heraf report found that 90% of reproductive health funds go to procuring contraceptives, and most of the remaining 10% goes to distribution. Very little goes to advocacy and communication. Abraham Rugo from the Institute of Economic Affairs agrees. He thinks many people have large families to care for them when they get old. They don't realize the connection between family size and prosperity, and programs do little to change these attitudes. Donors want to pay for contraceptives and think that is enough. We "need to spend more money on focal areas of attitude change, but that would mean that the Kenyan government will have to spend its own money. . . The government should come up with programs to motivate people to have small families." His suggestions called for financial incentives - though it was unclear where the money would come from.

    Bill Ryerson, president of the Population Media Centre in the US, agrees that poor access is not causing the discrepancy between women's stated wishes and their behavior. He noted other factors that hinder the use of contraceptives. According to the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 97% of husbands and wives know about modern contraceptives, but 40% don't use them. He says that information and motivational talks can address these issues better than focusing only on access. People must understand the benefits in health and wealth that their families can enjoy by limiting and spacing births. He suggests role modeling family planning use, overcoming fear that contraceptives are dangerous, and getting husbands and wives to talk to each other more openly. Where you measure progress by access to contraceptives, but people want five or more children, you will not stabilize the population.

    Successful nations emphasize changing people's attitudes about the role of women, ideal family size, age of first pregnancy, and the benefits of using modern contraceptives. They explain how reduced family size enables couples and nations to save more and invest in education, infrastructure, health and industry. The wider strategy could include raising women's status by providing mandatory and free education for children, especially girls. If more young women stay in school, they can later join the workforce and provide a better future for their families. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: Other strategies include providing maternal and infant health care (which can be integrated with family planning), educating girls, sex education, promoting birth spacing, and involving communities and men.

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2 3

    Employment, Public Office, and Land Ownership

    dl516 FOUND 026027 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 025812 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 025747 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 025489 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 025233 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_Agriculture`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 024072 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 024043 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 022566 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 023342 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 021576 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 021659 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 020699 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 020214 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 019694 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 019664 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;WhatWorks_violence`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 018859 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 018690 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 018542 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 018431 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 018054 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 017594 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 017622 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 017640 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 017438 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 017236 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 017329 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Religion_Islam`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 016991 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 016196 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 016217 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 016472 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 016242 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 016082 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;FundingPolitics_policyMakers`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 016134 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 015970 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 015975 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 015725 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 015638 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 015650 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 015062 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 015106 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 014458 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 014456 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013972 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 014003 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013590 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013764 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013791 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013519 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013198 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013380 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Economics_biggerNotBetter`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013175 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013023 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013024 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 013069 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 012974 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 012955 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 012483 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 012177 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 011742 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 011333 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 011214 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 011007 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 010857 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 010528 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 010331 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 010081 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 009878 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 007098 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 007768 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 007905 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 007496 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsScan2_NewsItem`;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 003945 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;ArchivesMay-Aug2002_item`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 004121 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 005369 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 005731 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 009035 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs new`M;`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand
    dl516 FOUND 009092 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand ..sectsubs WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand

    Malaysia Says Women Must Hold 30 Percent of Top Corporate Posts for Gender Equality

       June 27, 2011, Associated Press

    A landmark decision by the Malaysia Cabinet says women must hold 30% of top corporate posts by 2016 to bolster the role of women in Malaysia, a mainly Muslim country.

    Prime Minister Najib Razak says says the government will help companies develop programs to train women for decision-making roles.

    A similar policy instituted in 2004 for the public sector has raised women's participation from 19% to 32%. Women already hold some top government posts in Malaysia. doclink

    Karen Gaia: There are many other countries that can benefit from Malaysia's example, including the U.S.

    Ghana: Country May Miss MDG If Less Than 80 Women Win

       May 18, 2011, All Africa (Ghana)

    Twenty-three out of the 64 women who contested the New Patriotic Party (NPP) primaries were elected as parliamentary candidates and would contest on the ticket of the NPP in the 2012 general elections.

    Women's rights advocates who called for reduced filing fees for all female hopefuls, and are happy that they have been successful.

    Nevertheless, if the other parties, particularly the CPP and NDC do not field more women then Ghana will not be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women. doclink

    In a Land of Few Rights, Saudi Women Fight to Vote

       May 4, 2011, NPR

    Saudi women feel they have the least freedom or fewest rights of any women in the world. They have no right to vote, are not allowed to drive, have little say in matters of marriage and divorce, and cannot travel without a letter of permission from their male guardian.

    They must wear a black robe and veil whenever they leave the house.

    The government recently reneged on a promise to grant them the vote in municipal elections this fall.

    The president of the Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association thinks the government is using it to make concessions to the hard-line Islamic fundamentalists in the kingdom, who, among other things, run the much feared religious police here and oppose giving women more rights. They also keep Saudi citizens in check at a time when political dissent in the kingdom is growing.

    Small groups of women are going to the voting places and asking for a voting card. Others have tried to defy the ban against females driving. But then they are described as whores and their husbands as pimps and they suffer reprisals at work and have their passports confiscated by the government. doclink

    Saudi Women Sore Over Men-only Polls

       March 31, 2011, Gulf News (United Arab Emirates)

    In Saudi Arabia, women have been banned from voting in this year's municipal elections. The first municipal elections were held in 2005, but they were men only. Dr Mohammad Al Zulfa, former member of the Shura Council and woman's rights advocate said that not having women take part in the first municipal elections could be justified but after five years of the experiment, depriving women from the elections is unjustifiable.

    The elections will be held on September 22. The reform process was initiated by King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz. Lack of readiness at the polls will make it impossible for women to participate this year, the voting commission said. Also foreign organisations would not be allowed to monitor the elections.

    "Women will be allowed to take part at the appropriate time," Election Commissioner Abdul Rahman Al Dahmash said.

    A number of Saudi women activists and men advocating women rights described the decision as "unjustifiable and unacceptable". Saudi women have realized significant achievements at the local and international levels and so they are capable in being candidates and voters in the upcoming municipal elections. "We are looking for a political decision from King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz to have women, who constitute 49% of the Kingdom's population, take part in the forthcoming municipal elections," said Suhaila Zain Abdeen, a Saudi woman and human rights activist. doclink

    UN: Women Farmers Could Slash Number of Hungry by Up to 17 Per Cent

       March 8, 2011, Deutsche Presse-Agentur

    The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) says that women in rural areas could help reduce by up to 17% the number of the world's hungry - currently at almost 1-billion people

    "The report makes a powerful business case for promoting gender equality in agriculture," FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf said. "Gender equality is not just a lofty ideal, it is also crucial for agricultural development and food security. We must promote gender equality and empower women in agriculture to win, sustainably, the fight against hunger and extreme poverty."

    The 2010-11 State of Food and Agriculture report says if women were given the same access as men to agricultural resources, this could increase crops yields on women's farms in developing countries by 20% to 30% and raise total agricultural production in developing countries by 2.5% to 4%, which could in turn reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12% to 17%, or 100 to 150 million people.

    Women make up on average 43% of the agricultural labor force in developing countries. However, where rural women are employed, they tend to be segregated into lower paid occupations and are more likely to be in less secure forms of employment, such as seasonal, part-time or low-wage jobs. Jobs in high-value export-oriented agricultural industries offer better opportunities for women than traditional agriculture, the report said.

    "In many countries women do not have the same rights as men to buy, sell or inherit land, to open a savings account or borrow money, to sign a contract or sell their produce. Where legal rights exist on paper, they often are not honored in practice." Government officials must be held accountable for upholding the law and women must be aware of their rights and empowered to claim them. doclink

    Africa: Call to Put Women's Rights at Centre of Development Plans

       June 8, 2005, The Herald (UK)

    Womens' rights should be at the heart of future development plans for Africa, MPs from around the world told the G8 leaders. 80 international parliamentarians said improving women's health, education and pay were vital to the continent's wellbeing and gender equality should be integral to the process. The declaration urged the G8 leaders to act on aid to Africa, fair trade, debt relief, health and HIV, as without change Africa would miss its Millennium Development Goals. A keynote speaker at the event said participation in primary education among girls is only 80% of the level for boys in sub-Saharan Africa. But by improving the education of women, their rights generally improved, and so did their maternal and sexual health which were vital to Africa's future. doclink

    India: Kashmiri Women Lift Veil, Eye Career in the Skies

       July 8, 2009, Reuters

    Far from the capital of disputed Kashmir, a group of young women swap their burqas for smart suits and stilettos and dream of a career in the skies.

    The inauguration of an international airport in Srinagar, Kashmir's main city provided an alternative to careers in medicine and teaching, and the valley's first aviation academy is now grooming them for the skies.

    "We now have the opportunity to show the world that we can also become something in life", a trainee cabin said.

    The year-long training is no different from that offered by hundreds of similar institutes that mushroomed across India. But in Kashmir, where thousands of people have been killed since a rebellion in 1989, the institute is, a god-send.

    With protests and violence almost a daily occurrence in Srinagar, the institute chose to maintain a low- profile, picking an out-of-town location so the women, who often come in wearing burqas, are safe.

    I was apprehensive and reluctant because I was worried she would go away from me," said Ayub's mother Mehfuza. "But then I realized that if she does some professional training, it will make her life better."

    In the early 1990s, Islamist militants began imposing their own strict version of Islam, shooting at women who did not cover themselves in a burqa, and flinging acid in their faces.

    Now, the militants' hold over daily life in the valley has eased, with violence ebbing since India and Pakistan, began a peace process in 2004.

    A single cinema has reopened, traditional theater and music are being revived and young Kashmiri women are abandoning their veils and considering careers like aviation.

    Youngsters like Ayub were keen to make up for lost time and hold out hope for better times.

    "The present generation realizes that we must go forward, and see what opportunities are available and take them with both hands." doclink

    Investing in Women to Advance Economic Growth

       June 4, 2009, CEDPA

    Congresswoman Yvette D. Clarke said in a Congressional briefing: "Despite the significant progress, there is still a wealth of untapped potential in women."

    Economic growth for women has an important multiplier effect, which is why the World Bank calls investing in women .smart economics. Women tend to share their economic gains with their families and communities. One study concluded that investing in women's education and leadership in Africa can increase agricultural yields by more than 20%.

    Women own only 1% of the world's wealth, have only a 10% share in global income, and occupy just 14% of leadership positions in the private and public sector. Women produce half of the world's food, but own a only 1% of its land.

    ExxonMobil Foundation's Lorie Jackson said that "investment in women is not philanthropic, it's just smart business." Equipping women from all backgrounds with the education, skills and support systems necessary to be successful managers, business leaders and entrepreneurs is one of the most important means to ensuring economic growth in the developing world.

    Evelyn Omawumi Urhobo of Nigeria's Morgan Smart Development Foundation her community bank gives loans to "rural poor women who did not have access to credit to start businesses that would enable them to lift themselves out of poverty. To date, the bank has given loans to over 15,000 people mostly poor women in the region." They have a 85% pay back rate on loans given to the women.

    The Global Women in Management program is CEDPA's longest running training program, with thousands of graduate in almost every country worldwide. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Gender Equality

    dl516 FOUND 033138 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 030743 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 030578 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 029180 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 028679 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M`;WhatWorks_malePreference`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 028664 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_education`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 028658 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 027371 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_PopPyramids`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 027282 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 027112 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 026968 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 025645 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs USpopulation_background`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 025294 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 025208 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 024623 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 024823 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 024237 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhyPopMatters_news`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 024163 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 023860 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 023813 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 023543 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 023346 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 023338 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 023061 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_Water`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 023080 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 022311 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 022486 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 022898 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 022218 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 022213 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 021725 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 021393 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 021261 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 020660 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 020740 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 020344 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 020138 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 020186 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 019943 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 019705 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 019706 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 018819 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 018622 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 018541 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017685 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017714 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017610 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017608 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017559 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017564 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017518 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 017349 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 016877 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 016745 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 016628 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 016417 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 016243 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015939 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015922 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015701 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015642 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015714 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015345 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015398 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 015458 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 014858 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 014854 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 014830 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 014929 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 014517 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 014091 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 014023 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013676 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013533 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013079 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013020 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013514 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013375 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013167 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013105 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013124 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013021 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013022 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 013013 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 012847 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 012588 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 012417 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 012451 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 012156 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 010744 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 010080 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 010065 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 010027 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 009701 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 006701 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 006917 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsScan2_NewsItem`;WhatWorks_genderEquality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 007644 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs Religion_Islam`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 005698 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_genderEquality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 004101 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_genderEquality` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 009020 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 009021 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 009032 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 009038 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 009039 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 031144 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_Agriculture`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality
    dl516 FOUND 030603 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_genderEquality ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_genderEquality

    Men Are Stepping Up to Fight Child Marriage in Pakistan

    Men make up the majority of a rights group working to protect girls and women.
       August 14, 2015, Take Part   By: Amber Dance

    A non-profit Pakistan-based organization named Sujag Sansar (SSO) focuses on human rights issues not often addressed by politicians, including women's rights, child marriage, educational access, environmental protection, and clean drinking water.

    To combat child marriage, they produced a play depicting a young girl forced into marriage and the struggles of life as a child bride. By the end of one performance, several were weeping openly and many resolved to protect their daughters from the same fate. In Dadu, one of the provinces where SSO operates, girls are often married off when they're as young as 10 -- even though legislators recently raised the age to 18 for women, according to Birhamani. SSO's research indicates 35 to 37% of marriages in Sindh province involve child brides. Families often offer their daughter as a bride in exchange for money. While Pakistan law requires that a woman consent to her partner, the law is rarely enforced and many women are unaware of that right.

    There are many problems associated with child marriage: teens are more likely to die in childbirth than older women. Young wives usually aren't allowed to attend school and have little hope of earning money to support their families. Women fall victim to domestic violence, or the families of the married couple may argue and feud, which could escalate into tribal battles and honor killings.

    Some religious leaders preach say it's against Islamic law for a girl to live with her parents after puberty.

    When families still attempt to pursue child marriages, SSO recruits community leaders to try to prevent the marriages. The organization also educates religious leaders about the consequences and so far, 35 locals have pledged to verify ages before performing a wedding. SSO has also organized villagers into committees that notify police and journalists if they become aware of an underage marriage being planned; since 2010, they've prevented 33 underage marriages in the district.

    Seven out of 10 SSO board members and 200 of the 300 volunteers are male. This is because cultural traditions discourage women from working outside the home, according to Mashooque Birhamani, SSO's chief executive officer. He hopes this will change in time. "These issues are basic issues that are keeping our society from progressing. The time will come when women will be empowered and they will replace men [in the organization] and work for their rights," he says.

    SSO has also opened primary schools and enrolled 547 girls since 2006. Graduates hope to gain admission to secondary schools in cities and eventually universities. Clean water is also a major issue-many citizens, usually women and children, must walk five or more miles in search of drinking water. The task often keeps children, particularly girls, out of school.

    SSO's theater performances encourages members of the audience to advocate peacefully for the government to provide a water supply. Other projects include advocating for preservation of forests and assisting people affected by flooding.

    "We are seeing that the future will be bright...with betterment and good hope for all," Birhamani said. doclink

    UN Women Calls on Global Citizens to Bring Gender Equality Into Focus

    Launches Beijing+20 Campaign: Empowering Women, Empowering Humanity: Picture it!
       May 22, 2014, UN Women

    UN Women today launched a major campaign in the lead-up to the commemoration of the 20th anniversary in 2015 of the historic Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing.

    The campaign features a year of activities around the world which will aim to mobilize governments and citizens alike to picture a world where gender equality is a reality and to join a global conversation on empowering women to empower humanity.

    Events will focus on achievements and gaps in gender equality and women's empowerment since 189 governments adopted the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action.

    The Beijing Women's Conference drew an unprecedented 17,000 participants while 30,000 representatives attended the NGO Forum. Next year, in 2015, the United Nations will assess progress on implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action over the past 20 years, based on national reports currently being prepared by UN Member States.

    "Today I call on everyone to be part of the solution," said Ms Mlambo-Ngcuka. "Picture It! Together we can realize the promise of Beijing: equality between women and men." doclink

    Women Must Be Treated as Human Beings, Not Commodities, Says UN

    Population director tells politicians they have a duty to raise status of women and to reinvigorate commitments on equality
       April 24, 2014, Guardian   By: Liz Ford

    Babatunde Osotimehin, the executive director of the UN population fund, UNFPA, told almost 250 delegates attending the international parliamentarians' conference in Stockholm that women and girls are not commodities and must be treated as human beings with equal rights to men. He said they should remind their heads of state that they had a duty to raise the status of women in their countries and they should remember commitments they made to improve the lives of women and girls.

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss progress towards agreements made at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD).

    "We say girls, you are old enough to be married and old enough to have sex and old enough to have children, but you are not old enough to have access to contraception, not old enough to have sexuality education, not old enough to have control of your own body. This simply does not make sense," Osotimehin said.

    The ICPD conference, held in Cairo in September 1994 put women's empowerment centre stage in efforts to address population growth and sustainable development. The Cairo agreement - which came from that conference - made over 200 recommendations that sought to give women social and economic empowerment.

    Baroness Jenny Tonge, president of the European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development (EPF), said that politicians at Cairo discovered that sustainable development revolves around an individual and their access to sexual health services.

    Tonge said "Delegates have recognised that sexual and reproductive health and family planning for individuals is good for basic wellbeing, it stabilises population growth, increases social and economic growth and that leads to sustainable development."

    About 800 women die each day during pregnancy and childbirth, and more than 200 million women who want to use modern forms of contraception are unable to access services. Laws are not being implemented, which means FGM and violence against women is allowed to continue with impunity. UNFPA said progress had been patchy and achievements have been unequal within and between countries.

    The Stockholm meeting, organised by UNFPA and the EPF, is seen as particularly important, not only because it marks the 20th anniversary of Cairo, but also because it comes at a time when the international community is debating what should follow the millennium development goals, which expire next year. doclink

    Faster-Than-Expected Population Growth in Many 'Feed the Future' Countries

       August 1, 2013, NewSecurityBeat

    Feed the Future, President Obama's global hunger and food security initiative, started implementation in 19 focus countries in 2010. In that year, projections for population growth by 2050 were: Cambodia by nearly one-third; Kenya more than double; Mali to triple.

    The goals of Feed the Future are to reduce both the prevalence of poverty and the prevalence of stunted children by 20%. Interventions include developing new seed varieties, training smallholder farmers in new management techniques, and strengthening delivery systems for maternal and child health and nutrition services.

    Recently the UN Population Division revised its population projections upward, with populations in these countries expected to grow even faster than anticipated. Seven of the Feed the Future focus countries - Cambodia, Ethiopia, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal, Tajikistan, and Uganda - are projected to grow at least 20% more between 2010 and 2050 than projected just two years ago. Fertility is not falling as quickly as previously expected, particularly in many sub-Saharan African countries.

    A greater-than-anticipated boost in population is likely to amplify the struggle for enough food. What else can be done for food security?

    Access to quality reproductive health and family planning information and services is required for families to avoid unintended pregnancy and actualize their fertility preferences. More than 220 million worldwide women would like to avoid pregnancy but lack family planning.

    34% of women in Uganda, 30% of women in Senegal, 28% of women in Mali, and 26% of women in Ethiopia lack have this unmet need for family planning. Many see meeting this need for family planning as a basic human right, and its importance for women and child health, community health, and overall development is reflected in the Millennium Development Goals and likely in whatever will replace them.

    There is a correlation between the ability to determine the number, timing, and spacing of children and women's empowerment, which Feed the Future considers a critical component of strengthening prospects for food security, and why it is piloting the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index which measures gender parity within households, and extent to which women are empowered across five key domains: production, resources, income, leadership, and time. Having a measure of these forms of empowerment will facilitate informed interventions that can strengthen women's empowerment in ways that support food security outcomes. A woman's ability to plan her pregnancies is a relevant factor in each of these areas.

    With population expected to increase even faster, there is a need to redouble efforts in promoting women's empowerment and expanding access to reproductive health and family planning services. In Malawi where population, land, and climate dynamics threaten food security, there have been faster-than-anticipated drops in fertility. The emphasis placed on girls' education, access to family planning, and women's economic empowerment by President Joyce Banda has likely contributed to these changes. doclink

    Empowering Women to Improve Food Security - What Works and Why

       March 12, 2013, Guardian Professional

    The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in India guarantees 100 days of minimum wage employment - or equivalent unemployment payments - to poor rural households. The program benefited 52.5m households in 2009-2010, and put people to work building productive assets or providing environmental services, such as water harvesting and conservation and the digging of irrigation canals.

    Tens of millions are beneficiaries of the program, which aims to reduce poverty build infrastructure, as well as the empowerment of women, and which has resulted in the reduction the unemployment rate for women which was reduced from 141 days per year in 2005 (compared with 76 for men) to 48% in 2009-2010, spurred on, probably, by the promise of wage parity with men and the relative regularity and safety of the work.

    As a result, women were empowered by allowing them to contribute to household income and decision-making, notably on food, consumer goods, children's education, healthcare and debt management; and they were allowed to take a more active role in the rural public sphere.

    However many women are constrained by household responsibilities, looking after the young, sick or elderly or fetching water and firewood; in India this work is equivalent to 182% of total tax revenue.

    Under the act, there should be a female worker who looks after her co-workers' children (and paid the same wage as others), but 70% of the women interviewed had no access to childcare facilities at work, while 65% were unaware of this provision.

    In Bangladesh, its Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction - Targeting the Ultra Poor - is an asset transfer program. Launched in 2002 by the NGO BRAC and later expanded to cover up to 300,000 ultra-poor women and their households. The program provides women with assets such as poultry that require less labor to be maintained, while providing them with extensive asset management training as well as subsidized health and legal services, social development training, and water and sanitation.

    A daily stipend is paid until the assets were able to generate sufficient income for the household, which alleviates the need for the women to work in other peoples' houses as maids which made it more difficult for them to focus on working on the assets transferred by the program.

    Food security and anti-poverty strategies must be transformative and make the redistribution of roles between women and men a priority so that they not only sustain the poor but also avoid sustaining the gender divisions that characterize poverty and keep it locked in place. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: Empowering women goes a long way toward making women aware that working mothers can do more for their families by providing for them rather than just producing more babies. And when womens' worth goes up, male preference is no longer a major factor in determining family size. When a woman wants only two children, but one of them must be a boy, she has three children, on average.

    Taking Hope and Inspiration from Amazing Women

       March 7, 2013, PopulationGrowth.org   By: Suzanne York, Www.howmany.org

    Investing in women - namely providing education, healthcare, economic opportunities, sustainable livelihoods, and empowerment -, while good for population stabilization, is something the global community should be supporting anyway for the good of society. Numbers are important, such as the 222 million women around the world that want access to voluntary family planning services but do not have it. But population numbers should not be the main topic of discussion, especially when talking about women's rights and reproductive rights.

    Last year, Malala Yousufzai, a Pakistani teenage advocate for girls education,was tragically shot in the head by the Taliban, bringing attention to the challenges of supporting education for girls. The Taliban fighters boarded her school bus, and severely injured her and two other students. Malala has made a spectacular recovery and last month, in her first public statement since the incident,said "I want every girl, every child, to be educated." Malala has just been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Should she receive it, it would help her cause immensely, and improve the plight of girls around the world.

    According to the Central Asia Institute, which builds schools in the region, Pakistan has the second-highest number of girls who are not enrolled in school. Its education budget is less than 2.3% of GDP.

    The UN Special Envoy for Global Education (Former UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown) wrote that "Indeed, the new superpower that cannot be ignored is the power that girls are rightly seizing for themselves."

    In India, Dr. Vanaja Ramprasad founded the GREEN Foundation that is trying to protect agricultural livelihoods, promote women's empowerment, and share best practices based on local and traditional knowledge. Nearly 80% of Indian women work in agriculture, yet less than 7% of women have land tenure. Dr. Ramprasad has worked tirelessly in the face of the green revolution and the industrial agriculture system to protect biodiversity and empower small-scale farmers. She and her foundation are promoting women's innovations, much of it based on ancestral knowledge and farmer-to-farmer exchanges, including seed banks, multi-cropping, the use of natural pesticides, water harvesting, and other natural farming practices. All this has resulted in a positive and lasting effect on women's food and economic security, and has empowered women farmers across India.

    As we celebrate International Women's Day, let's keep the Dr. Ramprasads and Malala's of the world in our hearts and minds. When society empowers and values women and girls, it gives them the freedom to make positive choices for themselves and their families, which is good for the entire world. doclink

    Women's Empowerment is a Fundamental Requirement for Sustainability and a Prosperous Future

       March 8, 2013, Population Matters

    International Women's Day 2013 - Women's empowerment is a requirement for sustainability and is in the interests of all, men and women. Only when women are fully empowered can they make independent choices, with their partners, about the timing and number of their children.

    This ability to choose is key to reducing global birth rates to replacement level, which itself is necessary to achieve long term sustainability, protect the environment and biodiversity, slow climate change and ensure that there are sufficient resources for everyone. Only by ending and then reversing human population growth will there be sufficient resources to raise the living standards of the world's poor.

    Women's empowerment requires:

    *An acceptance that women should play a full role in social, political and economic life

    *Universal access to modern family planning and maternal health services

    *Equal access to education

    *Equal access to employment

    *Equal property, legal and other rights

    *Legal and social protection from violence, inside and outside the home

    *An end to female genital mutilation and child marriage

    *Poverty alleviation

    *Peace and security

    Commented Simon Ross "Women and couples, given the ability to choose and the right circumstances, typically choose to have smaller families. Smaller families are a precondition for sustainability. Consequently, women's empowerment should be included in all strategies with the goals of sustainability, environmental protection and poverty alleviation." doclink

    Religions and Babies

       May 2012, Gapminder World

    Is there a relation between religion, sex and the number of babies per woman? In this TED talk from Doha, Qatar, Hans Rosling discusses this delicate topic and explains the main reason why the world population will increase with another 3 billion people.

    It's not religion; it's not income. What is it?

    . http to see and explore the interactive map shown in the video.


    Image from Qatar government website


    Image from Gapminder World website at http://www.ted.com/talks/view/lang///id/1455 doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Self Esteem

    dl516 FOUND 027124 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 027113 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 026762 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M`;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M`;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M`;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 025582 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 025049 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 023523 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 023445 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 022757 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 021172 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 021212 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 020199 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 018361 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;WhatWorks_violence`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 018468 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 017884 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 017890 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 016770 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 015844 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 015532 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 014399 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 014289 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;Religion_Islam`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 013770 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;Bush_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 012718 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 012152 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 011195 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 010541 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 009509 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 007476 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`;WhatWorks_selfEsteem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 007248 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs WhatWorks_selfEsteem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 009019 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem
    dl516 FOUND 009022 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_selfEsteem ..sectsubs WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_selfEsteem

    Women in the World Summit: Fearless Women Taking on the World

       March 11, 2009

    Newsweek/The Daily Beast's third annual Women in the World summit showcased the stories of the globe's most fearless femalesState Hillary Clinton and Madeleine Albright, Nobel Peace Prize winner Leymah Gbowee, Oscar-winning actresses Meryl Streep and Angelina Jolie, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, Facebook's Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg, legendary feminist Gloria Steinem, and IMF Chief Christine Lagarde, and sparked a rousing discussion on the urgent challenges and tremendous opportunities facing women today.

    Other speakers included politicians, CEOs, philanthropists, educators, lawmakers, and activists from around the globe-including a provincial council member from Afghanistan, a Burmese democracy activist, a groundbreaking investigative journalist from Guatemala, and Egyptian veterans of Tahrir Square.

    The summit produced a weekend of unforgettable discussions and deep connections between women of different generations and backgrounds, all bound by the conviction that "women's rights are human rights" and that women have a moral obligation to work on each other's behalf.

    Leymah Gbowee recounted her life in Liberia during Charles Taylor's brutal reign and the events that led her to assemble the country's mothers to demand an end to civil war-culminating in a chain of women, arm in arm, taking a group of unmotivated negotiators hostage until they hammered out a peace accord. "If we want the rape to end, the violence to end, we have to stand up." .. "We have to be our own Gandhis. We have to be our own Kings. We have to be our own Mandelas," she said.

    Gbowee also expressed shock that American women were not more outraged over the way certain politicians and pundits were trying to shut them out of the reproductive-rights debate.

    Kah Walla, former presidential candidate of Cameroon's People's Party said "We cannot accept that having 19 percent of women in [the U.S.] Congress is OK." ... "It's politics that defines the economy; it's politics that defines social norms. And until we get political power, we are not going to be able to make giant strides."

    16-year-old Suma Tharu from Nepal, opened the Women in the World summit with a poignant song about being sold into slavery by her parents-who were disappointed to have a daughter. Suma, when she grows up, wants to work for an organization that helps other women.

    "We have a lot of work to do now of behalf of women in Egypt," said Dalia Ziada, Egypt director of the American Islamic Congress, who also said "There is no spring without flowers and there is no Arab Spring without women."

    .. http to read the entire, very inspiring, story. doclink

    Liberia: Leymah Gbowee: African Feminism Vs. Western Feminism: Pray the Devil Back to Hell

       March 7, 2012

    Leymah Gbowee's father protected her and her four sisters from the secret cutting ritual that would serve to bind them to their village. FGM plagues over 100 million women and girls around the world..

    "My upbringing defied what the typical African setting would say I went through," said Gbowee.

    Growing up in a poor, middle-class - she calls it - village in Liberia, her upbringing was different, molding her into a feminist, an activist, a peace-builder and the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

    When a bloody civil war ravaged her country from 1980 to 2003, Gbowee realized it was women who would have to bear the greatest burden in ending the conflict. She began organizing Christian and Muslim women to demonstrate together, founding Liberian Mass Action for Peace. They used non-violent protests and a sex strike.

    She wrote a book and held peace-building workshops in and around her country, teaching women to understand the great power they held - in both mind and body.

    Pray the Devil Back to Hell is an inspiring documentary film about Gbowee's part in helping to oust Liberian president Charles Taylor. Gbowee is a single mother of six, including one adopted daughter, and is based in Accra, Ghana, where she is the executive director of the Women Peace and Security Network (WIPSEN-Africa).

    \Women living in conflict regions of the world are victims of rape, sex trafficking, disease, infant mortality and other atrocities. Yet, these issues are many times swept under the proverbial rug as heads of state or humanitarian groups take great pains in dealing with other facets of a country's rehabilitation.

    "Liberia has 994 deaths per every 100,000 births. Sierra Leone is even worse. 1200 to every 100,000. In this day and age, we shouldn't have these numbers," said Gbowee. "It was because when we started rehabilitating our countries, we did not make maternal health a priority."

    "For us, the fight is to dignify what the African woman does, not to try to get her to do what the African man does," said Dr. Hildra Tadria of Uganda, co-founder of African Women's Development Fund. doclink

    Birth Rate Plummets in Brazil

       December 30, 2011, Washington Post

    Across Latin America fertility rates plummeted, even though abortion is illegal, the Catholic Church opposes birth control and government-run family planning is rare.

    Migration to the cities, the expansion of the female workforce, better health care and the example of the small, affluent families portrayed on the region's popular soap operas have contributed to such a fast demographic shift that it caught social scientists by surprise. The number of children per woman when from 6 in 1960 to 2.3 by 2010.

    Brazil has been particularly fascinating for demographers, it's fertility rate falling lower than in any other Latin American country except Cuba, which has state-sponsored family planning and legalized abortion. With a population of almost 200 million, there is a great gap between rich and poor, although millions have joined the middle class during Brazil's recent economic expansion.

    The country's fertility rate has fallen from 6.15 children per woman in 1960 to less than 1.9 today. That is lower than the United States, which at 2 per woman is just enough for the population to replace itself.

    Brazil's fertility rate took a big drop uniformly across the country. Suzana Cavenaghi, a Brazilian census bureau demographer. "We wouldn't expect that in a country that's so diverse, with a lot of poverty in so many places and so unequal, economically speaking."

    Women were empowered by a pro-democracy movement that rose up against a 1970s-era military dictatorship. That dictatorship, which wanted to populate Brazil's remote areas, inadvertently contributed to fewer births by promoting industrialization. That led rural families to crowd into cities, where a brood of children could be a financial drain.

    Women began to look for means of birth control, easily obtained without a prescription. Doctors in the public health service provided sterilizations, which became common, and women sought out pills that induced abortions long before those pills became the subject of controversy in the United States.

    A report, "The Battle for Female Talent in Brazil," says that 59% of Brazilian women consider themselves "very ambitious" and that 80% of college-educated women aspire to upper-echelon positions. U.S. women are far less likely to give those responses.

    The country's elaborate soaps, or telenovelas, have been an important factor in the drop in Brazilian fertility, researchers say. The protagonists inhabit an appealing, affluent, highflying world, whose distinguishing features include the small family. doclink

    U.S.: Colorado's Poorest Counties Have High Teen Pregnancy Rates

       April 11, 2011, The Denver Post

    The Colorado Children's Campaign has found that there is a wide and growing gulf between the state's affluent and its poor when it comes to how they choose to create and maintain families.

    The poorest counties have the highest rates of teen pregnancy, while, in affluent counties, new moms are more likely to be in their 30s.

    Many close to the issue are convinced that teenage pregnancy is less a matter of morals or sex education or access to birth control than it is a matter of a girl or boy feeling that they have a future. Or not. Girls with prospects do not have babies. Teen pregnancy is well established as a cause of poverty, but it may also be a result of poverty.

    Lisa Piscopo, a Colorado Children's Campaign researcher, said "I believe girls choose to have babies when they don't have a vision of any other options."

    The answer is neither handing out condoms nor preaching abstinence, but to offer more of a vision for other options. Debbie Channel made a grant-funded attempt to curtail teen pregnancies by convincing young girls that there was a big world out there and they could claim a place in it.

    In Huerfano County the average annual income just over half the statewide average and an unemployment rate that rose to over 10% last year. It has the state's highest rate of births to girls ages 15 through 17, and 54% of babies born in Huerfano County were to unmarried women.

    Nationwide five of the wealthiest states had the lowest teen pregnancy rates. But Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada had the highest teen birth rates. All but Arizona and Nevada are among the poorest states.

    In 2009, a University of Chicago study reported that by age 17, one-third of young women in foster care reported having been pregnant, and by age 19 the number was nearly half. As many as one third of girls interviewed for the study said they wanted to become pregnant, perhaps "to create the family they don't have or fill an emotional void." doclink

    China Urges Int'l Community to Promote Gender Equality Legislation

       February 25, 2011, Xinhua

    The 55th session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, the global policy-making body dedicated exclusively to gender equality and the advancement of women, was held from Feb. 22 to March 4 at the UN headquarters in New York.

    Song Xiuyan, vice chair-person of the All China Women's Federation, said that the international community should continue to strengthen its efforts to enhance women's economic situation and political status, improve women's participation in society, education and labor market, eliminate violence against women, and guarantee women's rights and interests.

    Song said the launching of UN Women, formally known as the UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, clearly indicates the great importance that different parties have attached to, and the broad consensus reached on women issues.

    She proposed that the UN Women should be committed to the realization of women's full development, with more input being made to alleviate poverty among women and to improve their education and health. doclink

    Jordan: Study Reveals Forced Pregnancies, Abuse in Southern Rural Areas

       January 16, 2009, Jordan Times

    Seven per cent of married women from rural communities in Jordon's southern region were forced to get pregnant, while 46% had no say in the timing of their pregnancies.

    The study targeted 918 women, 807 of whom filled out the questionnaire. Thirty seven per cent said they used at contraception with the intrauterine device and pills being the most common.

    Ninety five per cent of the women agreed that family planning has positive health advantages, while 29% did not give high priority to their health and do not seek medical treatment when they get sick.

    In light of these figures, there should be more focus when drawing up health policies to raise awareness and empower women. Strategies should provide education and training to enhance access to health centres and help them make appropriate decisions related to their reproductive health.

    The southern governorates cover a vast area, so there should also be a focus on outreach programmes. Forty two per cent of the respondents believe that married women's work was confined to their households.

    More than 30% said they were psychologically abused, being cursed for example, while 20% reported being physically abused and subjected to some form of economic and social abuse.

    A project is designed to improve women's reproductive health by enhancing health services in health centres, and also seeks to empower local communities as well as increasing awareness among men, women and young people on issues related to reproductive health. doclink

    Philippines Making Significant Progress in Empowering Women

       December 23, 2008, Thai Press Reports

    The Philippine is making headway in addressing gender issues and laws promoting participation of women in productive and income-generating activities and laws addressing violence against women and children.

    A Gender and Development (GAD) Budget Policy provides allocation of 5% of national and local government budgets for gender and development. The Philippine government is dedicated to addressing all forms of discrimination against women and is taking initiative in addressing violence against women, reducing women's vulnerability to trafficking and unsafe migration, accelerating women's participation, particularly Muslim and indigenous, in political life and decision, addressing high unemployment rate, enhancing access to health care and capability building and providing access to resources and security. All institutions may nominate any person who embodies all the qualifications of the proposed champion. The first MDG champion will be awarded an Orlina glass sculpture, scholarship grant, study tour abroad to United Nations General Headquarters (UNGH) in New York, United States and Geneva, Switzerland, free travel around the Philippines and designation by 2015 as Ambassador of Goodwill. doclink

    Pakistan: Population Welfare Department Motivating People to Keep Their Family Small

       February 19, 2008, Daily Times

    The Provincial Minister said the Population Welfare Department (PWD) is of great importance to motivate people to keep their family small and methods of population welfare.

    The minister said all steps were being taken to provide facilities and improve the structure of the department's employees.

    If the population was not controlled, serious problems could be created due to the population growth. People should keep their family to their economic resources. Scholars and people in the media could play an important role in informing couples about family planning.

    Abdul Aleem said family welfare centres had been set up at all hospitals of the Water and Power Development Authority and its Ferozepur Road Hospital had given the best performance. He said 94 welfare centres of the PWD were operating in Lahore. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Political Will, Government Involvement

    dl516 FOUND 033055 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 033039 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;FundingPolitics_Domestic`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 032880 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 031127 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 030748 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 029663 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 029502 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 029283 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 028364 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_politics`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;FundingPolitics_lobbying`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 027992 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 027964 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;FundingPolitics_philanthropists`M`;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 027894 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;PopulationControl_Balanced`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 027749 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 027373 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`A`;AIDS_news`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 027053 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 027019 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026976 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhyPopMatters_item`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026916 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;Impacts_oceans`M`;Sustainability_Sustainability`M`;WhatWorks_contraception`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M`;NewsDigest_videos`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026736 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026584 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026537 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_healthCare`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026415 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026331 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026324 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026250 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026112 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhyPopMatters_item`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 026060 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M`;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 025912 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    ***ERROR: Docid 025909 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 7
    dl516 FOUND 025851 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 025750 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_intro`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 025548 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 025052 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024847 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024856 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024807 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024873 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024362 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024378 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhyPopMatters_item`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024328 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Islam`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 024318 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_new`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023633 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023526 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023524 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023569 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023543 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023560 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022529 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023490 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023516 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023487 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023384 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023385 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023360 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023341 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023343 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023339 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022961 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 023163 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022933 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022492 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022645 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022764 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhyPopMatters_item`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022395 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021788 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022422 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 022278 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021378 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;California_pregnancyPrevention`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021880 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021959 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021691 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021640 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021440 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021524 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021488 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021385 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021280 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021291 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020950 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020925 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M;EmergencyContraception_ECconcerns`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021212 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_selfEsteem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021108 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020901 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 021093 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020418 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020613 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020743 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 019987 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;Sustainability_CarryingCapacity`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020303 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020292 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020275 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Europe`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020233 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020243 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020301 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020257 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020211 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020261 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020049 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020183 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020023 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020041 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020008 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 020033 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 019557 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 019766 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 019720 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 019514 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018926 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 019042 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018808 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018896 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018699 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018618 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018675 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018676 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018544 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018359 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018519 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018561 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018445 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhyPopMatters_Y6B`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018007 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018175 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018001 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Facts_faq`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018011 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 018036 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017934 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017685 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_successStories`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017656 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017797 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017613 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017497 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017549 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017512 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017483 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017380 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 017076 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016994 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016764 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016779 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016529 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016059 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016406 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016182 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016164 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016212 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016244 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016357 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016457 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;India_progress`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 016218 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 015835 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 015699 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 014914 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 015107 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Islam`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 014884 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 014470 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;FundingPolitics_statesRegions`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 014469 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013998 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;FundingPolitics_statesRegions`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 014146 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 014015 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013574 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhyPopMatters_item`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013752 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013772 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013589 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;FundingPolitics_MexicoCity`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013648 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013251 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013054 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013497 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013196 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013310 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013328 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013319 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 013160 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Religion_Vatican`M;BirthControl_religiousAlternatives`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 012935 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 012617 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 012508 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_CarryingCapacity`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 012141 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 012115 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 011885 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 011610 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 010778 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 010862 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;FundingPolitics_Cairo`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 010601 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 010513 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;BirthControl_choices`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 010461 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;EmergencyContraception_ECItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 010301 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 010315 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill
    dl516 FOUND 030393 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_politicalWill ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_politicalWill

    Obama Condemns Anti-Women Traditions in Final Speech of Kenya Visit

       July 26, 2015, Mail and Guardian

    US president Barack Obama condemns anti-women traditions in the final speech of his Kenya visit. Speaking in front of a crowd of 5,000 in Nairobi, Obama says there is 'no excuse' for sexual assualt, domestic violence, forced marriage, or other traditions that treat women as second-class citizens. Obama concluded the historic visit, the first by a serving US president, on Sunday before flying to Ethiopia doclink

    Number of Women in Need of Publicly Funded Family Planning Services Increased by Nearly One Million Between 2010 and 2013

    Publicly Funded Family Planning Services Helped Women Avoid Two Million Unintended Pregnancies in 2013
       July 2015, Guttmacher Institute

    Twenty million U.S. women were in need of publicly funded family planning services in 2013 -- 5% more than in 2010, according to a report "Contraceptive Needs and Services." This growth reflects the increase in the number of adults with a family income below 250% of the federal poverty level, or teens regardless of family income, who were sexually active, able to conceive and did not want to become pregnant.

    The services of publicly funded family planning providers helped women prevent two million unintended pregnancies, one million of which would have resulted in unplanned births and 693,000 in abortions. Without these services, rates of unintended pregnancies, unplanned births and abortions in the United States would have all been 60% higher.

    At the same time the need grew by 5%, Congress slashed funding for the Title X national family planning program by 12% and plans to cut funding even further, or eliminate it altogether. Kinsey Hasstedt, Guttmacher Institute public policy associate said: "This program isn't just good public health policy, it results in considerable savings. By helping women avoid pregnancies they do not want, the services Title X supports save $7 for every public dollar invested."

    Title X clinics served 4.1 million women in 2013, allowing women to avoid one million unintended pregnancies, 501,000 unplanned births and 345,000 abortions. Without these contraceptive services, levels of unintended pregnancy and teen pregnancy would be 30% higher.

    Title X clinics also provides preconception health care and counseling, STI testing and treatment, vaccines to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) and Pap tests.

    "Policymakers at all levels should be doing everything they can to support this critical safety net, which is vital to the health and well-being of millions of women and their families," said Hasstedt.

    Click on the link in the headline to see a great infographic on the subject. doclink

    Uganda on Track to Have World's Highest Population Growth

       July 3, 2015, Worldwatch Institute   By: Alana Herro

    A new report from the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) projects that the current population of the east African nation of Uganda is projected to explode from 27.7 million to 130 million by 2050, a nearly fivefold increase. Carl Haub, a demographer at PRB, says such expansion will entrap the country in poverty and instability. "No one would consider such a rate of growth to be sustainable," he says.

    Uganda is currently growing at 3.1%, compared to the world average of 1.2%. Uganda's growth rate is exceeded only by the African island nation of Mayotte, growing at a rate of 3.6%.

    To blame is the Ugandan government's lack of commitment to family planning. President Yoweri Museveni has called the nation's population explosion a "great resource." Only 20% of married Ugandan women between the ages of 15 and 49 have access to contraception. Women in Uganda have an average of 6.9 children, compared with a global average of 2.7 and an African average of 5.1. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: This article is at least 2 years old, judging by the copyright on the page, but it's information is even older, claiming that the world population is at 6.6 billion. In July 2014, President Yoweri Museveni had a change of heart, saying "Family planning, if combined with economic growth and transformation, will improve the lives of women and children. It will also save families and country's expenditure on too many dependents."

    See http://www.theafricareport.com/East-Horn-Africa/family-planning-ugandan-presidents-change-of-heart.html

    Iran Bans Permanent Contraception to Boost Population Growth

    Parliament prohibits vasectomies and other lasting birth control measures after Ayatollah Ali Khamenei calls for more babies
       August 11, 2014, Mail and Guardian

    Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has called for more babies to be born and.parliament has voted to ban permanent forms of contraception. Khamenei's decree in May called for the ban in order to "strengthen national identity" and counter "undesirable aspects of western lifestyles".

    The bill also bans the advertising of birth control in a country where condoms had been widely available and family planning considered entirely normal.

    Reformists see the law as part of a drive by conservatives to keep Iran's highly educated female population in traditional roles as wives and mothers. Health advocates fear an increase in illegal abortions. Abortion is legal in Iran if the mother is in danger or if the foetus is diagnosed with certain defects.

    In the 1980s, Iran offered incentives to encourage families to have more children, but that was reversed in the late 1980s, amid concerns that the rapid population growth could hobble the economy and drain resources. Subsequently the birth rate fell to 1.6 children per woman. It is projected that, at that rate, the population of more than 75 million would fall to 31 million by 2094, and 47% of Iranians would be above the age of 60. doclink

    Yougov Poll Shows That the British Support Smaller Families

    A YouGov survey survey released today shows support for smaller families and an end to UK population growth.
       May 26, 2014, Population Matters

    Commented Simon Ross chief executive of Population Matters, "The survey confirms the results of other studies we have conducted in recent years. People would prefer population to fall rather than to continually increase. The results support some of the key policies we advocate to stabilize and ultimately reduce our unsustainable numbers. Politicians should respond to this support by taking action to address our growing numbers, with all the problems they cause for housing and service provision, employment, resource sustainability, limiting carbon emissions and the environment."

    With global human numbers growing by 80 million a year1, 83 per cent of those questioned thought that it would be better if the future world population stayed the same size or fell.

    Similarly, with the UK population growing by two million every decade2, driven by relatively high birth and net migration rates, 84 per cent of those questioned thought that it would be better if the future UK population stayed the same or fell.

    Almost two-thirds (63%) of respondents thought that, when deciding how many children to have, people should take into account at least one of the following: the future availability of housing, services and amenities; natural resource limits, and environmental conservation. Of these respondents, just over half (51%) thought that people should have no more than two children.

    Most respondents supported a move towards balanced migration in the UK (54%) and limiting child tax credit (51%) and child benefit (50%) to the first two children in each household, with payments for further children being means tested.

    There was also support for better sex and relationships education in schools (49%), better family planning services (41%) and promoting smaller families (37%).

    Notes:

    The study was commissioned by Population Matters from YouGov. A sample of 2,362 individuals selected to be representative of UK adults completed the survey online during the 15th and 16th May 2014. The figures have been weighted and are representative of all UK adults (aged 18+).

    1. Source: UNDESA Population Division

    2. Source: Office for National Statistics doclink

    The Gulabi Gang - India (video)

       October 30, 2013, Journeyman Pictures



    In Uttar Pradesh, one of the poorest and most feudal areas of India, there is a long history of patriarchy, abuse and corruption. Now, an aggressive and outspoken gang of women are fighting the system. Sampat Pal is the leader of the Gulabi, or 'Pink', Gang. This feisty crusader is making headlines with her vigilante tactics; when she isnt attacking police, she is teaching women how to wield the 'lathi' - a long, wooden staff - to protect themselves against domestic violence. With over 40,000 members, the Gulabi Gang has quickly become a mass movement. Why do we have to take the law in our hands? I'll tell you. The government doesn't obey its own laws. They're making fools of everyone. The gang are on a mission to ensure that those born into the lowest caste have an education, avoid child marriages, and earn a decent wage. Mahatma Gandhi famously preached non-violence. Sampat Pal says times have changed. I salute Gandhi. He was the father of our nation. But my style is different. doclink

    U.S.: First Trimester Abortion: It's a Good Day to Be a Woman in California

       October 9, 2013, ACLU of Northern California

    Governor Brown recently signed AB 154, a bill authored by Assemblymember Toni Atkins that expands access to abortion care by authorizing trained health professionals to provide early abortions. The legislation addresses a current shortage in the state -- 52% of California counties don't have an accessible abortion provider -- and allows women to receive care in their own communities from providers they already know and trust.

    AB 154 is not just a California victory, it's a national one.

    It's not enough to protect what we already have. Even though we are fortunate not to be suffering the harsh political attacks felt elsewhere, there is still much hard work to be done to make reproductive rights a reality for all. This law is necessary for rural women, who often have to travel long distances and make arrangements at work and for child care in order to obtain an abortion. It is also necessary for urban women, many of whom face long delays in getting medical appointments. By expanding the types of health professionals who can provide early abortions to include nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives and physician assistants, AB 154 significantly reduces these barriers and improves access to care for Californians.

    A 16,000-patient study has already shown that trained health professionals can safely provide early abortions and that women appreciated receiving care in their own communities. Other states have seen restrictive bills pthat rely heavily on junk science - like the Kansas law requiring that, among other things, women be told by their doctors that there is a link between abortion and breast cancer.

    Other reproductive justice bills recently signed include a bill to protect patient privacy for sensitive services by closing a health insurance loophole, another ensuring that abortion-providing clinics are not subjected to different licensing and building standards than other primary care clinics, and one that expands paid family leave, and another that improves access to child care and reproductive health education for foster youth. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: California has reason to be cautious. The city council in Bakersfield wanted to pass an anti-abortion 'human-life' ordinance last July. When they found out they would be illegal, they decided to make it a resolution, which will be voted on this Wednesday night. See http://www.bakersfieldnow.com/news/local/Opponents-proponents-speak-out-on-proposed-human-life-ordinance-215945051.html?tab=video&c=y

    Ethiopia: Rethinking the Model Family

       August 26, 2013

    In Ethiopia the government has been organizing "community conversations". In one meeting, for example, a priest with Ethiopia's Orthodox Christian church says "Christianity is not opposed to contraception. It's opposed to killing and lying - not to birth control," and a female government health worker says that having too many kids, and not spacing pregnancies, increases the risk of illness and death for mother and child.

    While in rural areas lots of children - to herd cows and plow fields - has been the norm, a health worker says she targets women who are having a lot of children. "We approach them as sisters, and we say, 'Look, you are pregnant and you already have two babies - look at how you are struggling.'"

    A farming woman says when she first got married, she wanted a lot of children. "We wanted at least five. But then we met with the health workers, and they changed our mind," she said. She and her husband decided to have just two kids. She began using a contraceptive injection, which she gets from the government for free. The couple was publicly praised by the government and received a certificate, which hangs on the wall of their hut, recognizing them as a "model family."

    "Large families used to be admired," she said. "Now, it's people who use birth control and only have a few children who are respected. Families with a lot of children are criticized."

    Ethiopia's foreign minister, Dr. Tedros Adhanom, says the country has an unhealthy age structure - too many kids, and not enough breadwinners, which puts a big financial strain on the country, and it needs to change.

    Tedros says the government never tells couples how many kids they should have because that is, ultimately, a personal choice. "We don't put a number, saying, this number is good," Tedros says. Instead, the government teaches families about the benefits of having fewer children, and it lets parents decide for themselves.

    Over the past decade, the country's fertility rate has fallen, at least a little. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: another reason Ethiopia's age structure is skewed is too many deaths of adults from AIDs.

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2 3

    Unintended Pregnancy

    dl516 FOUND 018284 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy
    dl516 FOUND 017183 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy
    dl516 FOUND 012187 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy
    dl516 FOUND 011387 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M;USpopulation_citiesStates`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy
    dl516 FOUND 010825 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy
    dl516 FOUND 010491 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy
    dl516 FOUND 010276 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_unintendedPregnancy

    Pregnancy Politics

       July 30, 2006, Tulsa World

    About two-thirds of Oklahoma women who became pregnant between 2000 and 2003 did not intend to, and many Oklahoma women and men aren't getting family planning information. Attitudes and social restraints keep too many from getting it. Two-thirds of the unintended pregnancies were paid for using tax money.

    37% of women surveyed during that three-year span did not want to become pregnant. 38% indicated their pregnancies were simply "mistimed."

    But women in both categories are at higher risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, because they are less likely to get prenatal care, more likely to use alcohol, drugs or tobacco, and more likely to become victims of violence.

    Only 35% said they intended to get pregnant.

    Teenagers reported the highest rate of unintended pregnancies, with nearly 64%. Rates of unintended pregnancies were also high among African-Americans, at more than 55% and American Indians, at nearly 45%.

    Women with lower levels of education and those living in poverty reported higher rates of unintended pregnancy.

    The survey recommends: expansion of adolescent health services, especially in low-income communities; routine counseling; awareness of family planning available to low-income women; better access to more effective contraceptive methods; a focus on men's roles in family planning.

    Advocates argue there should be more emphasis on the male role in preventing unwanted pregnancies.

    Research shows that women who carry unintended pregnancies to term are less likely to pursue more education and to get good jobs. They also tend to have more health problems. Taxpayers usually foot the bill for the pregnancy. For every $1 invested in publicly funded planning services, $3 in Medicaid are saved.

    In the last legislative session, measures did not even generate debate.

    County health departments and family-planning contractors provide education and outreach. doclink

    Philippines: Responsible Parenthood is Pure Common Sense

       April 20, 2006, Business World

    An average of 10 families lose a parent daily, or more than 4,000 families yearly.

    Most maternal deaths are due to prolonged labor, hemorrhage or excessive bleeding, hypertension, and complications from infection, obstructed labor, and complications from abortion. These causes are preventable with proper nutrition, adequate prenatal care, and access to services by trained physicians or midwives.

    The cost effective solution is responsible parenthood that means not having more children than you can afford to support. If you cannot afford nutritious food and prenatal care for the pregnant mother, then it is the height of irresponsibility to indulge in sex that will lead to pregnancy.

    There are natural and artificial methods to help couples avoid unplanned and unwanted pregnancies. They have to consult their doctors in government or private clinics for the best method. When a woman gets pregnant and she and her husband are financially unprepared, then the possibility of dying during childbirth becomes very high due to malnutrition and lack of prenatal care. doclink

    India Drops Plan to Limit Lawmakers to Two Children

       November 23, 2004, Reuters

    India has dropped a plan to bar politicians with more than two children from running in elections for parliament or state legislatures, saying it does not want to use force to control the population. The thinking in the government is that family planning should be voluntary. doclink

    US New York: City's Infant Mortality Rate Jumped by 8 Percent in 2003

       August 28, 2004, New York Times*

    The infant mortality rate in New York City jumped to 8% in 2003 after several years of declining and was caused by a rise in deaths in New York's poorest communities. The overall infant mortality rate is 6.5 deaths for every 1,000 newborns, below the national average of 7 per 1,000. Some neighborhoods are worse than others: the Tremont section of the Bronx averaged 10.2 for every 1,000 children. Other neighborhoods with poor ratios included Fort Greene, Brooklyn, and Jamaica East, Queens. Manhattan had the lowest rate, 4.8, while the Bronx had the highest, 8.6. Factors including the use of alcohol or tobacco during pregnancy, access to medical care and the mother's economic status. The increase was due in part to the number of babies born prematurely and weighing very little. The overall rate is based on the deaths of 807 infants and 124,345 live births in 2003. City health officials aim to reduce the infant mortality rate to 5.0 by 2008. The Health Department is urging women to control their reproductive health and educating women about the methods of birth control. The campaign concentrates on the city's poorer communities and will include ads in the subways and on buses. Teenage pregnancy in New York has dropped in recent years but is still well above the national average. However, the majority of pregnancies in the city, of any age group, were unplanned. doclink

    Education-Africa: Breaking the Link Between Pregnancy and Dropping Out

       June 24, 2004, InterPress Service

    A conference in Nairobi is focussing on improving girls' education in sub-Saharan Africa especially to provide for the girl-child to go back to school after pregnancy. In Zambia 2,230 girls had dropped out of school last year because they became pregnant. Only a handful of countries in Africa have laws that make it compulsory for schools to re-admit young mothers. Where such laws exist, authorities must make sure they are enforced. Of the 42 million children who do not attend school in Africa, about 60% are girls. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region which is in danger of not fulfilling a target to eliminating gender disparities in education by 2015. Poverty prompts parents to keep children at home to assist with chores or be sent out to earn money. More than 200 million children are engaged in child labour, 68 million in Africa. When money is available it is the sons who receive preference. Parents believe daughters are destined for marriage and have no need of education. The provision of free primary education has traditionally been viewed as the best way of overcoming this hurdle. But delegates to the conference warned once again that simply passing the relevant legislation would not do the trick. Free education needs monitoring to ensure that girls enroll. Although Kenya introduced free primary education last year, 1.5 million children remain out of school including many disabled children. A study found that poor sanitation facilities discouraged attendance by girls who had started menstruating and led to them dropping out of school. Under a new project, girls are provided with sanitary towels, while teachers have been trained to discuss menstruation and related issues. An effort had been made to improve sanitation and build separate toilets for girls and boys. This has increased the retention of girls in school. doclink

    Joy of Sex Education

       May 11, 2004, Guardian (London)

    A US evangelical group will recruite British teenagers to its campaign against sex before marriage. The abstinence campaign has received $700,000 from George Bush, to replace sex education with Victorian values. Teenage pregnancies are concentrated at the bottom of the social scale. Women born into poverty are more likely to be unemployed, depressed and become dependent on alcohol or drugs. Teenage pregnancy and venereal disease is generally blamed on lax morals and a permissive welfare state. Teenagers are in trouble conservatives insist, because of the sexual liberation and the state support of single mothers. The US is the only rich nation with 53 births per 1,000 teenagers - worse than India, the Philippines and Rwanda. The UK comes next with 20. Germany and Norway produce 11 babies per 1,000 teenagers, Finland 8, Sweden and Denmark 7 and the Netherlands 5. Sweden, changed its sex education policies in 1975 when abstinence and sex only within marriage were dropped, contraceptive education was explicit, and youth clinics established to provide advice and free contraceptives. Sweden saw its teenage birth rate fall by 80% and sexually transmitted diseases declined by 40%. The Dutch experience concluded that the success has been from a society with open attitudes towards sex and sex education. Contraceptives are not associated with shame or embarrassment. America and the UK have an atmosphere of embarrassment and secrecy. The UK has a higher teenage pregnancy rate because of lower rates of contraceptive use. The catastrophe afflicting so teenagers in Britain and America has been caused by those who campaign against sex education. Abstinence campaigns such as the Silver Ring Thing delay sexual activity, but participants are one-third less likely to use contraceptives as they are not "prepared for an experience that they have promised to forgo".

    Abstinence programmes are associated with an increase in pregnancies among partners of young males. doclink

    Reassessing the Level of Unintended Pregnancy and Its Correlates in Vietnam

       March 2004, Blackwell-Synergy: Studies in Family Planning

    Despite increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility, unintended pregnancy and abortion remain common in Vietnam. 40% of pregnancies during 1994-97 have been unintended. With concealed pregnancies ending in induced abortions, the unintended pregnancy rate approaches levels found in developing countries. Unintended pregnancy was associated with age, early marriage, spousal age difference, number of living sons, past unintended pregnancy, geographic region, contraceptive use, and family planning. The findings suggest that broadening the method mix at the community level, targeting high-risk and underserved groups, and expanding postabortion counseling are likely to have an impact on the unintended pregnancy rate in Vietnam. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Male Involvement and Responsibility

    dl516 FOUND 030587 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 029121 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_youthInvolvement`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M`;WhatWorks_delayMarriageFistula`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 027086 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 026824 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 026551 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 026278 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 026061 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 024822 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 023746 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021747 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021577 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021637 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021930 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021579 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021554 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021635 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021638 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021640 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 021480 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 020529 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 020113 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 018466 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 018004 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 017314 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 017216 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 015851 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;BirthControl_choices`M;India_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 015737 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 015461 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 014893 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 014752 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 014448 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 014351 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;BirthControl_maleResponsibility`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 013974 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 013745 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 013430 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 013200 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 012685 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 012742 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 012381 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 012278 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 012173 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 011998 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 011524 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 010827 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 010745 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 010518 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 010565 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;BirthControl_maleResponsibility`M;Countries_Europe`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 010462 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 010333 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 005481 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item`;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 032340 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_delayMarriage`M;WhatWorks_unmetNeed`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement
    dl516 FOUND 031131 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_maleInvolvement ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_birthSpacing`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_maleInvolvement

    Men in Pakistan Want Fewer Children, Eager to Learn More About Family Planning

       April 21, 2014, World Bank

    Healthcare systems there have numerous opportunities for women to discuss family planning (e.g. antenatal care, deliveries, mother-and-child health services), but men don't have the same opportunities. A recent study by the Population Council with funding from the World Bank through the Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP) found that Pakistani men indeed want fewer children and are eager to receive technical information about family planning. As primary breadwinners and household decision-makers, their motivating force is meeting the needs of expenses. More children incur greater expenses.

    Economic concerns also stimulate communication between husbands and wives on family size and contraceptive use. There may be a divergence in opinion on ideal family size and contraceptive use or choice of method, but increasing spousal communication makes it easier for women to convince their husbands about the need for family planning.

    The lack of availability of family planning services and contraceptive methods, method failure, and costs impede men from using contraceptives, despite their increasing acceptance of family planning. In addition, limited knowledge of specific family planning methods, perceived or experienced side effects of modern methods, and lack of provider skills for managing side effects, also act as barriers.

    Male group meetings are suggested (both by men and women) as the most appropriate intervention for providing men with method-specific knowledge. A suggested male group meeting strategy includes involving local persons to organize meetings and an educated and skillful outsider (preferably a doctor) to conduct them. The strategy also includes immediate provision of contraceptives after the meeting so men who want to start using contraception are not delayed.

    Women favor involving religious leaders as an intervention more than men: Those in favor of involving religious leaders suggest that they be trained and discuss family planning with reference to the Quran and Hadith, communicating and endorsing the message that family planning is permitted in Islam.

    The role of the media is limited because there is the impression that providing details on contraceptive methods is inappropriate for television because they cannot be viewed in the presence of other family members (i.e. elders and children).

    Demand for male health workers: Appreciating the role and effectiveness of the government's Lady Health Worker program, men suggested recruiting male health workers in communities, with roles similar to Lady Health Workers, providing services to men at the community level. doclink

    'i Have Seen My Friends Die': Why We Need to Talk Frankly About Girls' Reproductive Health

       July 9, 2013, Huffington Post

    Last year at the London Family Planning Summit a global movement was catalyzed to ensure that 120 million more women and girls have access to contraception by 2020. World Population Day 2013 focuses on adolescent pregnancy. Complications in pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death among adolescent girls ages 15-19 in low- and middle-income countries.

    One in three of girls under 18 in the developing world are married; many without their consent. 15% of all unsafe abortions in low- and middle-income countries are among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years.

    Because of these alarming numbers, we need to talk frankly and openly; we cannot shy away from tough conversations when girls are at risk.

    Young women face barriers when they seek contraception or access to information and commodities to practice safer sex. This must stop.

    A young woman in Ethiopia, Haregnesh, says girls she knows who were very young when they got married and starting having children and she has see some of them die. "I have seen educated people and I saw the difference in their lives. ... I watched as they had no food to eat or feed their children and they just kept getting pregnant and having babies. I could see that they were suffering and I wanted to go to school." A Pathfinder International program in Amhara, Ethiopia supports girls to continue their studies. Haregnesh's strength and resolve to stay in school, as well as talk openly about girls' education, early marriage, and childbirth, has shifted the approach to girls' education in her family and in her community.

    Haregnesh's father, who had not wanted her to attend school said. "Haregnesh is our third child and she made all the change happen in our family. My three younger children now attend school as well."

    We must commit to ensuring adolescent girls have the support and resources they need to delay marriage and childbirth, stay in school, and start their adult lives the way each of them want to. doclink

    Karen Gaia Pitts says: it is important to note that patriarchal attitudes can be changed. That is why I am such a fan of programs like PAI's or the Population Media Center soap operas.

    Reproductive Health 101 for Adolescent Girls

       March 8, 2012, EngenderHealth News Blog

    Lesson #1: Information Is Power In many parts of India, teenagers lack access to quality reproductive health services, including counseling about contraception and HIV prevention. Read more. "http://www.engenderhealth.org/our-work/success-stories/arsh-story.php

    Lesson #2: Protect Yourself against HIV and STIs In many urban areas of Ethiopia, adolescents find themselves in situations that jeopardize their health. Read more about our Most At Risk Populations (MARPs) program "http://www.engenderhealth.org/our-work/success-stories/ethiopia-marps-ayenalem.php

    Lesson #3: Make Smart Choices to Inspire Your Future. Harmful gender norms can undermine the health of girls and women. That's why we engage boys and men around the world and encourage them to help support their partners' health. Read more about our Gender Matters program. http://www.engenderhealth.org/our-work/success-stories/genm-story.php doclink

    Involving Men in Family Planning

       December 10, 2011, Philippine Daily Inquirer

    At the Second International Conference on Family Planning,held in December in Dakar, Senegal, at a workshop on "Men Behind Family Planning," a speaker from Nigeria explained that while men have "high awareness" of the need for and importance of family planning, they have "poor knowledge" of the various modern methods of family planning and how these work. Men are "unwilling to use family planning" mainly because they were apprehensive and insecure, and didn't know how exactly they fit in the scenario, he said.

    The project intervention among village families included training in spousal communications, encouraging spouses to discuss health issues and engage in "joint decision-making" in choosing the method that best worked for them.

    One male workshop participant said "there are not enough options for men." "We can only choose between using condoms or having a vasectomy, and I tell you, both options are not attractive to me," he said. "But if only they would come up with a pill for men, I would take it at once."

    Another presentor told of research that found that 72% of those surveyed would be "very comfortable" with being counseled on family planning with their partners; while 75% stated that it was "very important" for men to be part of family planning. "The more a man believed in gender equality, the more likely it was for him to believe in taking part in family planning," the researcher said. But two out of every five respondents said they "believed that health facilities do not welcome men," with some reporting that health workers were unaccommodating, if not hostile, to the men among their women and children clients.

    This is unfortunate, given the generally positive results seen when men are actually encouraged to take active part in promoting the health of family members.

    Bangladesh, has a high contraceptive prevalence rate of 56%, but only 5% of method users are men. Studies have shown that "husbands play an important role in family planning decisions," since a disapproving or indifferent husband can actually discourage a woman from using a family planning method.

    An Engenderhealth researcher gathered "satisfied clients" and found what made them satisfied: a skilled surgeon, prompt and effective management of side effects, and effective client follow-up. The "champions" turned out to be excellent promoters of vasectomy, using themselves as examples, and engaging men in the neighborhood or in community centers in discussions about their family planning needs and health concerns. The "champions" were able to refer an average of two or three clients a month to undergo a vasectomy.

    In the area of female genital, after undergoing training in human rights, including women's rights, men have come around to the idea of banning FMG cutting. At the health center midwives explain the injury done by cutting and the health risks a scarred or wounded cervix posed to a woman during delivery.

    "After being educated on the right to health of women, and of the dangers posed by cutting, I could no longer support the practice," one man said. doclink

    Talking Their Way Out of a Population Crisis: by Emboldening Women, Evangelical Churches in Africa Help Them Overcome Traditional Resistance to Family Planning.

       October 22, 2011, New York Times

    The world is soon to reach 7 billion people and cound see 10 billion by the end of the century, according to the U.N. Most of these additional people will be born in Africa, where women in some countries bear seven children each on average, and only 1 in 10 uses contraception. With mortality rates from disease falling, the population of some countries could increase eightfold in the next century.

    In many parts of Africa, people already scramble to obtain food, land and water, and discontent provides fertile ground for extremism. So it is important to think carefully about the response to Africa's exploding population.

    Researchers have found that relaxed, trusting and frank conversations between men and women may be the most effective contraceptive of all.

    We learned this lesson from Western history. In Europe and the United States, birthrates plummeted between the late 18th and early 20th centuries. This had nothing to do with modern contraceptives, which had not yet been invented, or with government policies, a research team led by Ansley J. Coale of Princeton University found in the 1980s. Australian demographer John Caldwell speculated that is was due to the idea that childbearing was something couples could discuss openly and decide for themselves.

    Many researchers have more recently found that spousal communication is a powerful predictor of both contraceptive use and smaller family size. On the other hand, wherever such discussions are silenced by churches, governments, patriarchy or puritanism, birthrates remain high.

    Such a "cure" might work in Africa, as seen in what is happening in Africa's evangelical churches, long seen as the bane of family planning programs everywhere.

    10 years ago a Columbia University demographer, James F. Phillips, discovered this when he and a group of Ghanaian colleagues had spent a decade trying to encourage contraceptive use in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana, with little success. When they started on the project, the people were among the poorest in the world and losing one child in four to disease and malnutrition. Large families were considered an asset.

    Women who refused to have sex with their husbands, or who tried to use contraception secretly, were beaten. When asked about family planning, another woman said, "If you talk about such issues, you are a fool."

    A program where nurses went from hut to hut on motorized scooters treating sick children and pregnant women and offering contraceptive pills and injections resulted in a decrease in child mortality by 70%, but most women were still afraid to even discuss family planning.

    They organized all-male political gatherings presided over by the village chief to help explain to men that family planning would make their women and children healthier and stronger. These efforts weren't very successful.

    But suddenly data showed that large numbers of women were having fewer children, whether or not they lived near the experimental family planning programs. And at the same time large numbers of evangelical preachers were establishing churches in the Ghanaian hinterlands to which, every Sunday, Kassena-Nankana women dressed in Western-style finery headed in droves.

    Dr. Phillips and his team found that female Christian converts were three times as likely to use family planning as women who retained their traditional African faith, and had significantly smaller families, even though the churches didn't promote family planning. It turned out that many churches were giving women a voice denied them by their own culture.

    The born-again women were forming committees, making speeches and organizing outings, fund-raisers and other activities. Traditional religion forbids women to communicate with ancestors and other spiritual beings, but the Christian women were speaking directly to Jesus about their problems. He was, many of them may have felt, the first man ever to listen. This may have given them a language for speaking to mortal men as well, even about such sensitive matters as contraception.

    Then Dr. Phillips and his colleagues urged elders there to admit women to the traditionally male-only health and family planning meetings.

    At one of the first events, a woman spoke of the burden placed on women by men who demanded that they produce so many children. The local women in the crowd went wild with enthusiasm.

    Men who beat their wives were urged to stop. Since the start of the program wife beating has declined and the fertility rate has fallen to 3.5 children per woman, a drop of more than one birth.

    Being able to express oneself and exchange ideas without fear of reprisal may be the very essence of empowerment, and potentially more important to lowering birthrates than money or access to health services, or even education. This ability for self-expression may be a path to Africa's broader political and economic development as well. doclink

    Karen Gaia: another reason to put more funding into such programs. Now, not tomorrow.

    In Nigeria, Selling Men on Birth Control is An Uphill Battle

       August 9, 2011, NPR

    Nigeria, with about 155 million people, is the most populous nation in Africa and the fertility rate has changed little, still at about five kids on average.

    Although various types of contraceptive methods are available, about 20% of Nigerian women say they're not able to access them. Often their husbands stand in the way.

    For six years the Society for Family Health, or SFH, an affiliate of the international non-profit PSI, has been trying to promote long-term birth control, such as intrauterine devices or contraceptive implants. Women who came and expressed interest in birth control went home to tell their husbands, but never came back.

    So on family planning posters around the community, they started portraying men as caring and supportive. Men started accompanying their wives to the clinic. "Men felt ownership. The men felt that, 'this was about me and my family,' " said Dr. Anthony Nwala, with SFH.

    SFH also identified men who were pro-family planning and trained them to educate other men.

    Today families are moving away from the farms and moving to an urban area where providing for a large family in is more of an economic burden.

    Daniel Smith, associate professor at Brown University, disagrees, saying "Women are more educated and liberated today, and yet they still want to have five or six children." He thinks Nigerians favor large extended families as a way to stay socially connected.

    But Nwala still believes women - and men - are slowly learning that having fewer children will help them economically. doclink

    Family Planning: It's Time to Welcome Men Into the Discussion

       July 12, 2011, Huffington Post

    Every year on July 11 is World Population Day, but this year, July 11 2011 was particularly important because this year somewhere around October 31, the world's population will reach 7 billion. In response to this, the United Nations launched a campaign entitled 7 Billion Actions to educate, raise awareness and encourage action around the growth of the world's population. As Ashley Judd puts it "the campaign is a wake-up call to the health, environmental, and social challenges associated with rapid population growth. It is also a wake-up call to the importance of voluntary family planning." Judd claims that, "in 2011, more than 200 million women worldwide are still denied access to desired family planning services due to unavailable resources or lack of support from their husbands and communities." It is her sense that it is time to make universal access to family planning a global priority, and that it is essential to welcome men into the conversation.

    Judd's service as Global Ambassador to Population Services International(PSI) has given her the opportunity to witness first hand the unnecessary dangers that women face in developing countries due to childbirth and pregnancy. Judd cites World Health Organization statistics stating that world wide 1000 women die every day from complications of childbirth and pregnancy, and that over 99% of these maternal deaths occur in the developing world, in countries where a mother's death can leave children -- and entire families -- in a perilous scenario. Many of these women would choose to have smaller families but do not know how to prevent pregnancies. Some choose to use toxic, poisonous herbs and risk their lives to attempt to prevent or terminate pregnancies while husbands and partners are relegated to worriedly and helplessly watching their wives struggle with these poisons. Judd's point is that family planning education and methods must be more accessible to these families, and must include the men.

    It turns out that men in these countries are worth including in the family planning decision making process, because research suggests that when they are included they are more likely to support their partner's family planning choices. Unfortunately though, few of the family planning programs used in developing countries include men in their educational models. But a program in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is working to change this model. To do this, it is incorporating the use of cell phones to increase communication to both men and women of the DRC.

    Because in 2011, 70 percent of world-wide cellular phone users live in developing countries, the World Bank has recommended contacting cell phones to deliver health services, particularly in remote areas like the Democratic Republic of the Congo .

    Recognizing these statistics as well as the fact that 24% of the women of reproductive age in the DRC have unmet family planning needs, the Population Services International (PSI) and its local partner, Association de Sante Familiale, have moved to use cell phone technology to launch a "family planning hot line in the DRC called La Ligne Verte" (Judd)

    Ligne Verte is open 5 days a week for 8.5 hours and offers no-cost, accurate information on family planning. Moreover it refers callers to family planning clinics across a wide geographic area.

    But probably the most significant offering of the Ligne Verte is that it supplies a "safe, confidential zone for Congolese men and women to ask sensitive questions about family planning, as well as other sexual health concerns such as HIV."

    Apparently to date, 84% of Ligne Verte callers have been men. Similar PSI hotlines in other countries reflect corresponding statistics. More that three quarters of the callers to national PSI family planning hotlines in Benin and Pakistan were men.

    These are significant statistics. Men, as well as women, are asking questions about family planning and seek answers about how to keep their families physically and economically healthy. To continue listening to questions and to continue finding ways to answer questions helpfully, The Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Ministry of Health and Prevention in Senegal will co-host with over thirty other co- sponsors, the second International Conference on Family Planning: Research and Best Practices November 29-December 2, 2011 in Dakar, Senegal. doclink

    Counselling Key to Success of Male Cut

       November 2, 2010, PlusNews (Johannesburg)

    When Kenya launched its national voluntary male circumcision campaign in 2008, critics worried that it could lead to greater sexual risk-taking - but men in the western Nyanza Province seem to be disproving this theory.

    For example, a 23-year-old said: "When I heard people say male circumcision helps in reducing HIV infection, I went there with the sole purpose that it would lessen the burden of having to use a condom. But after that, I have known a lot through the counselling I received; I use a condom every time with anybody ... I am not married so I am not going to trust anybody."

    Kenya's programme aims to circumcise more than one million men by 2013, while doing HIV testing and compulsory counselling on HIV prevention, including messages about the importance of continued condom use, since circumcision does not offer full protection from the virus.

    A small 2010 study by the University of Illinois in Kisumu found that most respondents - whether circumcised traditionally or in health facilities - reported either no behaviour change or improved protective behaviour, such as increased condom use and fewer sexual partners. Respondents understood that that male circumcision only provided partial protection against HIV.

    Another study found that circumcised men did not engage in more risky sexual behaviours than uncircumcised men in the first year after the operation.

    Most men in Kenya are circumcised as teenagers during rites of passage into adulthood that do not generally feature HIV education. One young man told the story about how, after he was circumcised during the traditional ceremony of western Kenya's Bukusu community, he was told that he was man enough to have sex with as many girls as he chose. But he heard it being talked about on the radio and everywhere that "circumcision cannot prevent you from HIV unless you use a condom or are faithful." Studies show that not all traditionally circumcised men heed the message about the HIV risk with unprotected sex. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: It might be a good idea to investigate whether clinical circumcisions are a culturally acceptable alternative to ritual circumcisions, and, if the use of a condoms might be curtailed by the culturally inspired desire to father many children.

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Holdups: Male Preference, Violence to Women, and Others

    ***ERROR: Docid 032830 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 8
    dl516 FOUND 032688 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 032685 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 032384 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 032136 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 031125 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 031107 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 030767 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 030187 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;M`M;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 029741 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 029162 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 029252 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 029259 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028960 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 029059 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;PopulationControl_TargetsIncentives`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 029008 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;M`M`;M`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028971 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028681 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;India_holdups`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028253 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028266 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028188 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028152 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 028039 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027698 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027674 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;PopulationControl_TooCold`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027429 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_holdups`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027403 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;Countries_Asia`A`;WhatWorks_holdups`A ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027382 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027288 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`A`;WhatWorks_holdups`A` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027015 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M`;Sustainability_Agriculture`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 027069 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_politics`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026975 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026746 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026744 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026695 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026369 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026268 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M`;Religion_Islam`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026000 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 026026 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Africa`M`;WhatWorks_holdups`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 025978 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_new`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    ***ERROR: Docid 025876 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 9
    dl516 FOUND 025745 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 025672 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 025526 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 025384 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 025371 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 025218 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024577 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024861 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024841 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024623 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024823 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024536 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024754 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024506 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024627 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024616 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Islam`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024584 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024590 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024481 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_Cairo`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024424 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024167 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024128 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024102 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024061 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_news`M;Economics_sustainabilityPopulation`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024040 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Economics_sustainabilityPopulation`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 024033 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023997 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023814 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023735 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023744 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023607 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023569 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023558 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023572 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_choice`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023496 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023511 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_contraception`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023500 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020799 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_NorthAmerica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Abortion_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023476 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023361 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 023052 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_religiousReproductionists`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022983 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022987 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022544 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_births`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022497 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022656 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022551 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhyPopMatters_item`M;Sustainability_CarryingCapacity`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022665 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022714 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022705 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022726 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022754 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022297 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022298 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022107 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020948 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020818 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021726 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022449 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_politics`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022137 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022146 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022004 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021315 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021394 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021374 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M;California_pregnancyPrevention`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022037 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021983 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021752 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_religiousAlternatives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 022133 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021836 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021634 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021685 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021672 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021498 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021546 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021574 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021633 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_understandingSexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021651 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021443 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_condomsSTDsIntro`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021398 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021276 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021391 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021203 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_FundingLevels`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020905 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 021109 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020754 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020537 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020494 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020574 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020684 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020345 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020356 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;PopulationDeclineOlder_decline`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020158 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_MexicoCity`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020021 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020379 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020238 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020245 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020219 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020109 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020024 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019967 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020034 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;SexualBehavior_index`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019939 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019873 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020010 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019783 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 020054 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019218 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019780 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019721 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019807 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019446 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019339 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019340 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019299 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019206 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019455 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019506 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018790 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019136 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018680 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018998 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_RelatedFPforeignAid`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 019086 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_education`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018750 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018872 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018627 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018673 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_healthCare`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018712 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018354 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_mediaSexEd`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018559 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018560 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;Religion_Islam`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018521 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018373 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;USpopulation_background`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018542 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_jobsPubOfficeLand`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018340 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018325 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_sexualBehavior`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018285 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018304 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018065 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_familyPlanning`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018039 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018141 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018152 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017887 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 018000 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017813 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017861 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017797 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017627 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017434 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_RelatedFPforeignAid`M;Religion_new`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017425 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017519 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017546 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017451 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017389 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Facts_naysayers`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_BCNews`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017065 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017182 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017333 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;USpopulation_sexualResponsibility`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017070 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017072 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017075 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 017086 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Economics_disparityWealth`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016741 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016547 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016859 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016548 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Economics_news`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Economics_sustainabilityPopulation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016922 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016754 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016806 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016785 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016820 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016693 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016542 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016521 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016528 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016569 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016571 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Children_childrenItem`M;Religion_Islam`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016614 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016704 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;PopulationDeclineOlder_misunderstood`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016055 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;USpopulation_births`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016339 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016238 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016245 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016452 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016061 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016166 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016207 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015908 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 016068 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_new`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M;AIDS_STDs`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015925 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015721 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015573 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015879 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015710 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015556 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015700 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015713 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015636 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_EastEuropeUSSR`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015550 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015564 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015417 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015403 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015401 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015440 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015293 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015496 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015509 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015464 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015284 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015442 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Abortion_unsafe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015251 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015449 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    ***ERROR: Docid 015321 - Has no SS matching this list doc444 # 10
    dl516 FOUND 015395 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_RelatedFPforeignAid`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015368 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Immigration_brainDrain`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015281 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;AIDS_news`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015257 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_poverty`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014384 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014753 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014869 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015067 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014885 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maternalInfantMortality`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014919 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 015073 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_USFundingIFP`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014832 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Abortion_new`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014552 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014708 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_Cairo`M;HowToHelp_letterwriting`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014760 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Immigration_births`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014751 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014551 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013573 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_statesRegions`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014320 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Oceana`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014353 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 014132 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012522 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012119 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_archives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013859 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013788 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013775 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013680 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013055 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013521 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013356 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_progress`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013362 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;USpopulation_USNews`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013364 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013438 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013348 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013184 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_choices`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013305 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013313 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;EmergencyContraception_EClegislation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013324 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_BCNews`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013329 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013179 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013115 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013103 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 013061 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012973 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_UNFPA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012832 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_statesRegions`M;TeenPregnancy_USA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012846 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_exploitation`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012823 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012874 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012790 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012792 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012395 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Children_childrenItem`M;Religion_new`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012741 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012745 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012599 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012522 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_new`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012385 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012530 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Islam`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012531 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012384 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012469 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012300 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Immigration_brainDrain`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012344 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012224 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012238 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;AIDS_news`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012250 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012255 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012173 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_maleInvolvement`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012174 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012119 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;India_archives`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012105 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;TeenPregnancy_worldwide`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 012098 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;USpopulation_USNews`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011929 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011873 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011878 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011870 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011856 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011834 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011670 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011669 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011619 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011632 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011649 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011633 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Europe`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011546 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011610 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_politicalWill`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011371 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011318 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011324 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011251 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011268 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011191 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011116 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 011100 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010991 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010875 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010971 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010865 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_maleResponsibility`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010748 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010735 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010711 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010663 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010604 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010643 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010507 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsScan2_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;FundingPolitics_sexEd`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010552 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010443 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010398 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010400 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010335 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010265 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_BCNews`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010245 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Children_childrenItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010255 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010256 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010169 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009915 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010006 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 010001 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009950 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009931 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009930 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009579 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 006414 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Africa`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009491 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;BirthControl_Quinacrine`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009465 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 006301 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Abortion_decline`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 006463 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 006685 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M;Religion_Islam`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 006300 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 006532 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;ArchivesJan-Apr2003_item` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 007171 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 007975 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 008200 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Religion_Vatican`M;Countries_SoCentrAmericaCarribean`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 008386 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs WhatWorks_holdups`M;Countries_Asia`M;NewsScan2_NewsItem` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009056 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs AIDS_news;Children_childrenItem;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 009060 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs AIDS_news;Children_childrenItem;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups
    dl516 FOUND 032673 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_holdups ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;PopulationControl_Controlling`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_holdups

    'So What If I'm on the Dole'?' Mother of Ten Children by Five Fathers Now Wants 50 Grandchildren to Keep Benefits Rolling in

       May 19, 2015, Daily Mail   By: Martin Robinson

    A single mother with ten children by five fathers has said she wants 50 grandchildren so they can become Britain's biggest benefits family. Mandy Cowie, 49, has lived on benefits for 30 yr., and her own children have been following the same jobless path. She receives about £22,000-a-year in government handouts and encourages her children to have 5 babies each so the checks will keep pouring in.

    Ms Cowie has spent £2,000 on tattoos, including one that says: "Only God can judge me." In a recent TV show, her children describe how to milk the system to gain as much cash from the state as possible. doclink

    Art says: Fear that welfare was becoming a way of life lead the Clinton administration to introduce TANF (a.k.a. Welfare to Work). An additional safeguard (not in use) would provide benefits more directly to children (through the schools and health insurance) without handing any checks to parents. Section 8 housing would allow parents to house their children and themselves, but since all other benefits would go directly to the children, parents would need to fend for themselves.

    Karen Gaia says: there is plenty to be gained by focusing on meeting the unmet need for contraception in the U.S. (and probably in the U.K.) 50% of pregnancies are unintended, and many of these can be prevented by making long-acting reversible methods free and available.

    Let's focus our efforts in developed countries on the unmet need, rather than on shaming people for how many children they have.

    Child Marriages, Trafficking Will Soar After Nepal Quake - Charity

       May 19, 2015, Thomson Reuters Foundation   By: Emma Batha

    With more than 8,500 fatalities, the two earthquakes that struck Nepal on April 25 and May 12 have yielded catastrophic repercussions that many overlook. Due to criminals seeking to take advantage of orphans and increased rape, there will be a significant surge in child marriage and trafficking rates, which are already high in Nepal.

    According to Anand Tamang, the director of CREHPA, a Nepalese organization against child marriage, children will become more vulnerable in the aftermath of the earthquakes. "Rape is taking place. Almost every week we have a case of a young girl being raped... Parents who have young girls... will think the best way to ensure her safety will be to marry her," he said. In addition to concerns about safety, families will also marry off young girls with the expenses or destruction of schools.

    Child marriage increases the probabilities of childbirth complications and sexual and domestic abuse. Tamang describes child marriage as "a social evil [that deprives] the chance to enjoy the life of an adolescent... of her education and her aspirations." This is not only an issue in Nepal; throughout the world, more than 700 million women today were married before they were 18, with one in three girls in developing nations married before the age of 18.

    To combat this problem, almost 300 delegates are attending the three-day meeting in Casablanca hosted by Girls Not Brides (GNB) doclink

    Heejin says: Although many do not think of the issue of child marriages and trafficking as one of the more major ramifications of the Nepal earthquake, it is essential for people to recognize this problem, as this directly affects future generations.

    Karen Gaia says: Trafficking is a big problem in Nepal. Not only trafficking of sex, but also of body parts. Most of it is to India. Children are also given into slavery to a neighboring, more well-off, family.

    Feminist Writers Are So Besieged by Online Abuse That Some Have Begun to Retire

       February 26, 2015, RSN - Reader Supported News   By: Michelle Goldberg

    While digital media has amplified feminist voices, it has also extracted a steep psychic price. Women are being ferociously punished when they tell their stories. Some have been driven from their homes or forced to cancel public appearances. "Being insulted and threatened online is part of my job," Lindy West, formerly of Jezebel, recently said on "This American Life."

    Jessica Valenti, columnist for the Guardian, thinks about quitting "all the time." She recalls being referred to as a c--- day in, day out for 10 years. She questions what effect that has on one's psyche.

    In 2013, the pro-choice activist Jaclyn Munson wrote about going undercover at an anti-abortion crisis pregnancy center. Soon a stalker was sending her death threats. She gave up writing online and now plans to go to law school, which she hopes will let her work on the issues she cares about in a safer, less exposed way.

    She says what's different now is the existence of organized misogyny, with groups of men who are gathering under banners such as the Men's Rights Movement and Gamergate. Nation columnist Katha Pollitt points out that there is a cadre of incredibly enraged men who have all found each other, thanks to the internet.

    Once a woman is singled out by a men's rights group such as A Voice for Men, the misogynist Reddit forum The Red Pill or even just a right-wing Twitter account like Twitchy, she is deluged with hatred.

    Filipovic, the former editor of the blog Feministe, says that, although her skin has thickened over the years, the daily need to brace against the online onslaught has changed her. "You read enough times that you're a terrible person and an idiot, and it's very hard not to start believing that maybe they see something that you don't." She also finds it harder to let her guard down.

    Many feminist writers have decided to end their online presence. Writer Lauren Bruce, Emily McCombs, executive editor of women's site xoJane, are among them. doclink

    Richard says: The Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, which received numerous death threats since the depiction of cartoons of the prophet Mohammed, is proof positive that internet bullying works.

    Fracking and Trafficking

       January 5, 2015, Trafficked

    In the Balkan Oil Patch and beyond -- in North Dakota, South Dakota, and affecting young girls in Minneapolis -- the high ratio of men to women has created an issue of supply and demand. In the summer of 2014, Forum News Service set out to shed light on what we saw as a growing problem in North Dakota: human trafficking. It wasn't until we began reporting that we realized truly what a serious issue our state had on its hands. Not only because of the depravity of the crimes taking place in our own communities, but also because of the difficulties in detecting trafficking victims and given the unique nature of the Oil Patch, where the high ratio of men to women has created an issue of supply and demand.

    Excerpts:

    *Native American populations are 'hugely at risk' to sex trafficking.

    *Tim Purdon, U.S. attorney for North Dakota, often says he realized that sex trafficking was a problem in western North Dakota after a November 2013 sting in Dickinson was shut down early because of such high demand for commercial sex with minors.

    *The closest dedicated shelter for trafficking victims is more than 500 miles away from the Oil Patch.


    . . . more doclink

    Niger: Population Explosion

    Runaway birth rates are a disaster
       August 16, 2014, Economist

    A woman in southern Niger has 8 children, 3 of them triplets and her babies scream for food. "If they cry and I have nothing to give them, then I must let them cry," she says, her children suffering from malnutrition, lacking the energy to shake the flies from their faces. It is a common picture in west Africa's largest country.

    The UN's Human Development Index places Niger at the bottom of the list in terms of poverty. Most inhabitants grow subsistence crops on small plots of dusty, infertile land. An estimated 2.5 million people out of a total of 17 million have no secure source of food. In 2012, harvests failed and almost a quarter of Niger's population was said to be going hungry.

    This problem is compounded by high fertility rates. Niger has an average of 7.6 children per woman - the highest in the world. Poverty, ignorance and poor access to contraception are contributing factors, in addition to cultural factors. Many men are polygamous, and local doctors note that the wives often try to prove their value by outdoing each other in child births. Niger's population will more than triple between now and 2050.

    Modern contraceptive use went up from 5% to 12% from 2005 to 2012 but this rate is still dismally low by global standards. About 50% of women of child-bearing age use modern contraceptives in Rwanda and Zimbabwe.

    Foreign-funded health centres promote long-term options like contraceptive implants. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) runs a "school for husbands" which teaches men, who traditionally tended to obstruct women seeking birth control, about family planning. The schools hope to dispel wild rumours about contraception.

    Only a tiny proportion of the government's budget is devoted to family planning. Only about 25% of women express any desire to space out their births. It has been over 20 years since Niger identified population control as a priority in the fight against poverty, yet birth rates are still rising. doclink

    Killed by Stork

    Family planning is vital for Pakistan's security
       June 25, 2014, Newsweek Pakistan   By: Roshaneh Zafar

    In 1978 Thomas Malthus predicted that the world population was bound to outstrip food production, leading to a state of "natural distress." To strike a balance between global natural resources and population, Malthus proposed family planning through "moral restraint," that is, rallying men to delay marrying until later. Malthus has been proven right on the significance of family planning, which is today inextricably linked with economic and security challenges in developing countries, like terror-stricken Pakistan.

    The 2009 Failed States Index by the Fund for Peace showed that "failed" states had a total fertility rate -- the number of children per woman -- at five, while the global average was 2.6 at that time. The 2013 Failed States Index, where Pakistan is No. 13, connects the risk of radicalization to the lack of economic opportunities and unemployment. When states are unable to afford the basics for their people (schooling, nutrition, health care, etc.) the denudation of the state is hastened by the employment of its people for radical causes. It's also now evident that having more children results in more, not less, poverty.

    The 18th Amendment to the Constitution keeps Pakistan from pursuing a cohesive national program for family planning. The amendment laudably recognized the socioeconomic rights of Pakistani citizens, including the right to an education, as a basic human right. However, it also devolved many previously federally-held responsibilities-including population planning and management-to the provinces.

    Pakistan's children-per-woman figure has gone down from 6.7 in 1970-1975 to the present-day 3.3. In comparison, Bangladesh has gone from from 6.2 in 1970-1975 to 2.5 today.

    On the bright side, the 2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey shows that almost all married women and 95% of married men were aware of at least one modern family-planning method, and that between 20 to 25% of married women wanted to wait before having another child or even to limit the number of children. doclink

    Iran's Baby Boom Decree Prompts Fears for Women's Rights

    Reformists warn Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's population drive could restrict access to contraception and further marginalise women
       May 30, 2014, Guardian

    During the 1980s, Iran's clerics and political leaders joined forces to reduce birthrates. Billboards displayed smiling small families with the motto 'fewer kids, better life.' This resulted in the world's fastest decline in birthrates for any voluntary family planning program. Then, abruptly, former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Ayatollah Ali Khamenei changed course and called for larger families, a request that people have mostly ignored. Now the Ayatollah has mandated more forceful tactics that could restrict access to contraception and further unravel some of the few rights that women have recently gained.

    In his 14-point decree, Khamenei claimed that increasing Iran's 76 million-strong population would strengthen national identity and counter undesirable aspects of western lifestyles. On his website, he said,"Given the importance of population size in sovereign might and economic progress" Iran needs "firm, quick and efficient steps" to reverse the recent trend. All three branches of government are required to obey this order, which calls for nearly doubling the population to 120 million.

    The falling fertility rate is one of several issues that divides Iran's conservatives and reformists. Most Iranians dislike the policy shift. Reformist Iranians fear the fertility campaign could undermine the position of women in a country where, according to the Statistical Centre of Iran, 60% of university students, but only 12.4% of the workforce, is female. And, with his energies fully committed to removing the economic sanctions related to Iran's nuclear program, reform-minded President Hassan Rouhani remains mum on birth control.

    Farzaneh Roudi of the Population Reference Bureau, a Washington-based think tank, said that Tehran could stimulate its economy by hiring more women, "many of whom do not work in the formal economy."

    She added that the political push for a baby boom is unlikely to succeed. "It's hard for me to imagine that people will have more children because Khamenei wants them to." doclink

    Madhya Pradesh Tribal Women Have No Idea of Contraceptive Use

       January 24, 2014, Times of India

    The state government of Madhya Pradesh claims to be actively educating residents about family planning, but evidence shows that half of the tribal women residing in the state are clueless about modern family planning methods.

    Vandana Tamrakarm, a research scholar from Jawaharlal Nehru University conducted a study that revealed tribal women in Madhya Pradesh do not understand the concept of birth control.

    The study found that only 49% of tribal women have knowledge of contraceptive use. Only 41% women are aware of male condoms, 29% know about IUD (intrauterine device), and only a mere 14% know about the Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP).

    "The reason for the low awareness could be attributed to low literacy rate and lack of exposure," explained Tamrakar. Results also showed that middle-aged, higher educated women are likely to use the modern method of contraception as compared to the younger women (aged 15-24).

    Using the information collected from District level Household Survey (DLHS), Tamrakar collected information from 51,419 households, 46,634 currently married women (aged 15-49), and 9,940 unmarried women (aged 15-24) from 45 districts of Madhya Pradesh.

    Tamrakar explained that adding that use of modern methods in Madhya Pradesh is affected by many factors like age of women, religion, couple education and economic status.

    Additional findings of the study have also found that despite some women in the study possessing higher levels of education, there was no significant association of contraception use. Tamrakar believes the situation could improve with the positive changes in economic statuses of families. doclink

    Male Preference

    dl516 FOUND 031744 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 028679 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M`;WhatWorks_malePreference`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 026371 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;Countries_Asia`M`;WhatWorks_malePreference`M` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 025522 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 024821 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 024695 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 024162 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 024128 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023776 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023736 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023527 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023537 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023565 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023517 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 021442 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023478 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 023346 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 022485 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 022210 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 022181 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 022197 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 022074 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_progress`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 021831 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 020031 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 019961 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Abortion_decline`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 019729 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 018816 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 018619 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 018557 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;HumanImpacts_conflict`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 018481 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 018312 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 018421 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 017871 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 017965 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Oceana`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 017902 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;India_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 017662 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 017303 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 017237 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 017144 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_education`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 016057 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 015923 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Abortion_familyPlanning`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference
    dl516 FOUND 015710 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_malePreference ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_holdups`M;WhatWorks_malePreference`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_malePreference

    Niger: School for Husbands Gets Men to Talk About Family Size

       November 27, 2014

    There are things that guys never talk about, like benefits of birth control, the care a woman should take when pregnant, and breast-feeding. But in the School for Husbands program in Niger they are talking about it.

    "In our culture, in the past having a large family was seen as a gift of God," says the local chief. A large family "is seen as something positive, and that's in contrast to what is needed for development. The fast-growing population really hampers the development of the country."

    Niger is the country with the highest birth rate in the world, at seven children per woman. Its population is expected to double over the next two decades. Most people in Niger survive by way of subsistence agriculture in a country primarily covered by desert.

    Ali Hassan, the assistant country representative for the United Nations Population Fund in Niger, says the population boom is a huge threat to the country's future.

    "Now people are just looking to survive. And the government's only priority is to slow down population growth for people to just survive," Ali Hassan, of the UNFPA in Niger, says. The country has run out of arable land and yet the population continues to go up. "In the past they would use a specific place, and when the productivity [of the soil] went down, they'd move to another place. Now they don't have that possibility, and the productivity is just going down and down and down," he says.

    For 25 years Niger has tried a soft-diplomacy approach centered around delaying marriage for teenage girls and encouraging the use of contraception. However, the primary roadblocks to social change come from men.

    Six months after the School for Husbands began in 2004, there are now Schools for Husbands in villages across Niger and more women are asking about family planning. When the schools started, only 5% of women in Niger reported using contraception. Now that figure is up to 13%. doclink

    Empowering Women to Improve Food Security - What Works and Why

       March 12, 2013, Guardian Professional

    The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in India guarantees 100 days of minimum wage employment - or equivalent unemployment payments - to poor rural households. The program benefited 52.5m households in 2009-2010, and put people to work building productive assets or providing environmental services, such as water harvesting and conservation and the digging of irrigation canals.

    Tens of millions are beneficiaries of the program, which aims to reduce poverty build infrastructure, as well as the empowerment of women, and which has resulted in the reduction the unemployment rate for women which was reduced from 141 days per year in 2005 (compared with 76 for men) to 48% in 2009-2010, spurred on, probably, by the promise of wage parity with men and the relative regularity and safety of the work.

    As a result, women were empowered by allowing them to contribute to household income and decision-making, notably on food, consumer goods, children's education, healthcare and debt management; and they were allowed to take a more active role in the rural public sphere.

    However many women are constrained by household responsibilities, looking after the young, sick or elderly or fetching water and firewood; in India this work is equivalent to 182% of total tax revenue.

    Under the act, there should be a female worker who looks after her co-workers' children (and paid the same wage as others), but 70% of the women interviewed had no access to childcare facilities at work, while 65% were unaware of this provision.

    In Bangladesh, its Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction - Targeting the Ultra Poor - is an asset transfer program. Launched in 2002 by the NGO BRAC and later expanded to cover up to 300,000 ultra-poor women and their households. The program provides women with assets such as poultry that require less labor to be maintained, while providing them with extensive asset management training as well as subsidized health and legal services, social development training, and water and sanitation.

    A daily stipend is paid until the assets were able to generate sufficient income for the household, which alleviates the need for the women to work in other peoples' houses as maids which made it more difficult for them to focus on working on the assets transferred by the program.

    Food security and anti-poverty strategies must be transformative and make the redistribution of roles between women and men a priority so that they not only sustain the poor but also avoid sustaining the gender divisions that characterize poverty and keep it locked in place. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: Empowering women goes a long way toward making women aware that working mothers can do more for their families by providing for them rather than just producing more babies. And when womens' worth goes up, male preference is no longer a major factor in determining family size. When a woman wants only two children, but one of them must be a boy, she has three children, on average.

    One-Child Policy a Surprising Boon for China Girls

       September 4, 2011, The Associated Press

    In 1978, women made up only 24.2% of the student population at Chinese colleges and universities. By 2009, that number rose to nearly half, according to the National Bureau of Statistics.

    In contrast, women in India make up 37.6% of those enrolled at institutes of higher education, according to government statistics.

    Since 1979, China's family planning rules have barred nearly all urban families from having a second child in a bid to stem population growth. With no male heir competing for resources, parents have spent more on their daughters' education and well-being, a groundbreaking shift after centuries of discrimination.

    "They've basically gotten everything that used to only go to the boys," said Vanessa Fong, a Harvard University professor and expert on China's family planning policy.

    "In the past, girls were raised to be good wives and mothers," said Vanessa Fong, a Harvard University professor and expert on China's family planning policy. "They were going to marry out anyway, so it wasn't a big deal if they didn't want to study."

    Today's urban Chinese parents "perceive their daughters as the family's sole hope for the future," and try to help them to outperform their classmates, regardless of gender.

    Some demographers argue that China's fertility rate would have fallen sharply even without the one-child policy because economic growth tends to reduce family size. In that scenario, Chinese girls may have gotten more access to education anyway, though the gains may have been more gradual.

    Crediting the one-child policy with improving the lives of women is jarring, given its history and how it's harmed women in other ways. Facing pressure to stay under population quotas, overzealous family planning officials have resorted to forced sterilizations and late-term abortions, sometimes within weeks of delivery, although such practices are illegal.

    When sonogram technology arrived in the 1980's, some families were able to engineer a male heir by terminating pregnancies when the fetus was a girl. Chinese traditionally prefer boys because they carry on the family name and are considered better earners. 43 million girls have "disappeared" in China due to gender-selective abortion as well as neglect and inadequate access to health care and nutrition, according to a recent UN report.

    "It is gendercide," said Therese Hesketh, a University College London professor who has studied China's skewed sex ratio. To combat the problem, China allows families in rural areas, where son preference is strongest, to have a second child if their first is a girl. The government has also launched education campaigns promoting girls and gives cash subsidies to rural families with daughters.

    Beijing-based population expert Yang Juhua has determined that single children in China tend to be the best educated, while those with elder brothers get shortchanged. China has many loopholes to the one-child rule, including a few cities that have experimented with a two-child policy for decades.

    While women have reached gender parity in education, they remain woefully underrepresented in government, have higher suicide rates than males, often face domestic violence and workplace discrimination and by law must retire at a younger age than men.

    It remains to be seen whether the new generation of degree-wielding women can alter the balance outside the classroom. doclink

    Gender Imbalance, Bias Worldwide Phenomenon

       April 4, 2011, The Pioneer (India)

    If one goes by the sex ratio of six out of the 10 most populous countries in the world, gender imbalance seems to be becoming a worldwide phenomenon.

    The 2011 global sex ratio is 984 females against 1,000 males. India's is lower, at 940 females to 1,000 males, and China, Indonesia, Nigeria and even the USA have all shown a decline in the sex ratio in 2011.

    Despite all its prosperity, better living and educational standards, the USA has failed to sensitize the society towards the girl child.

    The decline has been particularly sharp in Nigeria and Indonesia.

    On the other hand, the sex ratio in Japan, Brazil and the Russian Federation has increased impressively in 2011, while the population of these countries (except Russian Federation where it has declined) accounting for nearly three-fifth of the world population, has grown over the last decade.

    India (940), Pakistan (943), Bangladesh (978) and Afghanistan (931) all show a preference for sons, although showing a light increase. All these countries have banned pre-natal tests. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: Male preference in developing countries usually results in a higher fertility rate. If the average desired family size is two, but a woman or family don't stop until a male is born, the the average will be three.

    China: And Why Not a Baby Girl

       November 3, 2010, InterPress Service

    Affluent urban couples in China are starting to think about having a second baby, hoping it is a girl.

    Some are concerned that their first child will move away when he grows up, and a daughter can stay and take care of them.

    An example given of such a couple are a woman and her husband who own a software company in Beijing that earns the couple about 500,000 yuan (74,828 U.S. dollars) a year - enough to afford circumventing the one-child policy. Under this policy, couples need to pay a fine, based on families' annual income, that has been reported to range from 45,000 dollars to more than 100,000 dollars.

    The couple thought it was too expensive to raise a boy, especially in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. "We have to buy him an apartment at least. Otherwise it will be difficult for him to find a girlfriend."

    In China, where a historical preference for boys has led to a dramatic gender imbalance, attitudes about having girls are beginning to change in urban areas. According to a 2009 survey of 3,500 prospective parents in Shanghai, 15 percent of those interviewed wanted a baby daughter compared to 12 percent who wanted a baby boy. The rest had no preference.

    China's gender imbalance has reached dangerous levels. The attitude that girls cannot accomplish as much as boys is becoming outdated. "Girls can also inherit a family business." "They can be as able as men."

    A booming economy in the last decade has created more opportunities for woman, particularly in the cities. Rising incomes have rendered moot the traditional reasons for wanting a boy - namely that a boy will earn more money to support his parents in old age.

    In 2005, the last year for which data is available, there were 119 boys born for every 100 girls. In some areas, the ratio was as high as 130 males for every 100 females.

    In rural areas preference for boys has led to a number of selective abortion, prostitution and human trafficking. China has a surplus of some 32 million boys.

    South Korea has had a shift in gender preference in the last 20 years. In 2006, Korea's gender ratio was 107.4 boys born for every 100 girls, down from a peak of 116.5 boys to every 100 girls in 1990, according to a 2007 World Bank study. (Demographers consider a 105 to 100 ratio normal).

    Major shifts in Korea's economy created opportunities for women in the work force, changing long- held attitudes toward women?s role in society.

    A study in 2010 by the government-supported Chinese Academy of Social Sciences named the gender imbalance among newborns - not overpopulation - the country's most serious demographic problem.

    The study attributed the gender imbalance to China's three-decade-old one-child policy and to a poor social security system.

    "The chance of getting married will be rare if a man is more than 40 years old in the countryside. They will be more dependent on social security as they age and have fewer household resources to rely on," another researcher said. Abductions and trafficking of women were "rampant" in areas with too many men.

    China has made great strides in terms of gender equality. There are a growing number of women in government administrative positions, legislation on gender equality continues to rise and there are more women receiving education at high levels. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: While I am not denying that the couple should have a second child, if they want, it would be cheaper, and less strain on the environment, to instead save the money they would spend on the second child and invest it in their future.

       September 2010

    When you survey young women in developing countries, and ask them how many children would they like to have, often the answer is: "two". However, when the answer is "two children", but where there is sufficient male preference that a woman will keep trying until she has a son, then the average fertility rate of that area is 3.0.

    Male preference can slow, or even freeze, gains in fertility reduction until women establish a higher standing. This can be done with education, women's empowerment, jobs for women, and others, but these all take time.

    Birth spacing, menstrual regulation, and popular soap operas are three quicker ways that may help nudge fertility reduction towards faster progress. doclink

    India: Matrubhoomi - Futuristic Drama About Gender Imbalance

       2003, Netflix movie review

    Manish Jha's disturbing - and controversial - futuristic drama envisions a barbaric society of gross gender imbalance. The story centers on Kalki, the only female in her village. Married off to five brothers, Kalki is routinely raped and eventually tries to escape from her life of brutal exploitation. But the wretched woman's life grows even more complicated when she becomes pregnant. doclink

    Karen Gaia: Of course the problem is male preference, which leads to a fertility rate of 3 children per woman. Women must be given gender equality via education and employment opportunities before these problems can be resolved.

    Sex Selection Skews Sex Ratio

       August 21, 2009, InterPress Service

    In Vietnam there are laws against domestic violence and discrimination, and very high female literacy, yet its sex ratio is skewed: 100 girls to 112 boys at birth. The "average" is 105 boys to 100 girls.

    People prefer sons. "If you have sons and they have children, they will carry on the family name." People who want boys do abortion when they are pregnant with girls.

    Families in Vietnam are restricted to two children. This ordinance was reinstated in November 2008, after being rescinded in 2003, originating in the 1980s thanks to government fears of a population boom and strains on resources.

    The highest skews gender ratio is 120:100, in the northeast.

    "Confucian values" which prize sons over daughters and men over women have been blamed in part. Vietnam traditionally has been a patrilineal society, with sons responsible for caring for parents in old age. Daughters, who marry and leave, are considered "outsiders". "In the household, the decision making process is very traditional. Nothing has changed."

    The authorities seized 30,000 sex-selection books in early July and shut down seven websites that were advising couples how to have sons.

    Revealing the sex of the foetus is illegal but doctors find creative ways around direct statements.

    The abortion rate in Vietnam is one of the highest in the world.

    Vietnam's gender imbalance "holds the potential for increased levels of antisocial behaviour ultimately presenting a threat to stability and social order," a 2007 UNFPA report has warned. Some experts have worried that this may lead to an increase in the trafficking of women. doclink

    End of this section pg 1 ... Go to page 2

    Community Development and Conservation

    dl516 FOUND 030410 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 029870 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 029913 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M`;EducationalMaterials_videos`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 029830 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 029630 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 029281 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 029085 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M`;M`M`;M`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 028778 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 028679 priority 7 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M`;WhatWorks_genderEquality`M`;WhatWorks_malePreference`M`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 025913 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 025749 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 022930 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;NA`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 022935 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 022272 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 021920 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 022016 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 019476 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 021404 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 019828 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 019431 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 018759 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 018796 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 018469 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Africa`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 018527 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_Water`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 017928 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Countries_Asia`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 017807 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Economics_globalTrade`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 016925 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 016190 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 016222 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 015995 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Economics_disparityWealth`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 014831 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Economics_disparityWealth`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 014484 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Economics_disparityWealth`M;Countries_Africa`M;Immigration_brainDrain`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 014000 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Economics_ecoEconomics`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 014028 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Economics_disparityWealth`M;NewsDigest_NewsItem`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 013897 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 013576 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;India_progress`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 013836 priority 6 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 013835 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 013326 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 012307 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 012285 priority 4 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;Sustainability_Water`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 011895 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_MidEastNorthAfrica`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 011760 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 011255 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Africa`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 011250 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs NewsDigest_NewsItem`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M;Countries_Asia`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 004112 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 003870 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs ArchivesMay-Aug2002_item`M;WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 005107 priority 5 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs WhatWorks_developmentConservation` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 004505 priority 3 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs ArchivesSep-Dec2002_item`;WhatWorks_developmentConservation` ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 009075 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation
    dl516 FOUND 009076 priority 1 ..chkSSname WhatWorks_developmentConservation ..sectsubs WhatWorks_developmentConservation`M ..listsectsub WhatWorks_developmentConservation

    How the 'Avon' Model is Empowering Women to 'Inspire Change' in Madagascar

       March 7, 2014   By: Laura Robon

    Safidy means "the freedom to choose" in Malagasy, and is the name and ethos of a reproductive health programme run by a British charity, Blue Ventures, in Madagascar. The project enables women in a remote area to choose the number and spacing of their births. Before the Sadify programme began, women had to walk up to the length of a marathon to reach the nearest family planning clinic.

    Blue Ventures was already working on marine conservation projects in the region when local women approached us, asking if we could support them to get easier access to reproductive health services. With strong community relations and infrastructure already in place, we were ideally positioned to respond by developing a scheme with the women.

    Through the resulting Sadify programme, local women are trained as 'Avon-like' entrepreneurs to offer a range of affordable contraceptive options in their villages. This sustainable social enterprise model allows them to generate a small income for their otherwise voluntary work. In addition to providing voluntary family planning services, they teach semi-nomadic fishing families along Madagascar's south west coast how to improve their health.

    Since the project began in 2007, the proportion of women in the project using contraceptives went from 10%, to 55% in 2013.

    Integrating voluntary family planning services into Blue Ventures environmental work has generated positive spin-offs, improving food security and empowering women to engage with these conservation initiatives, as they gain access to the information and means to make their own reproductive health choices.

    Our vision is to see this integrated model replicated across Madagascar and beyond, so that we can reach the most isolated with vital health services, and support the long-term sustainability of their conservation efforts.

    We also hope that this project will inspire a fundamental shift in the way that people think about environmental and social challenges; not as distinct but interlinked. We want these issues to be tackled in the way that people and ecosystems actually experience them - as a whole.

    The Safidy programme is supported by the Madagascar Ministry of Health, Marie Stopes Madagascar, Population Services International, the MacArthur Foundation and UNFPA Madagascar. doclink

    More Than Local: How PHE Can Help Solve Humanity's Biggest Problems

       December 2, 2013, NewSecurityBeat   By: William Pan

    In an era of globalization, where products often travel thousands of miles before reaching our hands, there exists the dangerous perception that supplies are limitless. There's a disconnect too between our consumption choices and how their production and processing impacts the environment. All too often, the result is humans falling prey to the simple idea that more is better, which is dangerous when "more" is easy to obtain.

    Figuring out how to clothe, feed, and please all seven billion of us is a task that will require looking at systems as part of a whole, and, in that respect, the population, health, and environment (PHE) community has much to offer.

    Our generation faces unprecedented challenges: imminent climate change resulting in rising temperatures, more frequent violent storms, and altered rainfall patterns; land and water scarcity; quite possibly the peak of human population; true globalization of world markets, driving maximal consumption among both developed and many fast-developing countries; a rapid transition to urban living, with the global urban population rising to around 70 percent by 2050; and a shift in the leading causes of death worldwide from infectious diseases (1970s and 80s), to chronic diseases (now), to neurodegenerative diseases (projected for the future).

    PHE intervention programs do a laudable job meeting local demand for family planning in vulnerable environments, improving food security, and encouraging environmentally sustainable livelihoods. However, monitoring and evaluation, a strength of research organizations, is still being developed.

    But their short time-frames often mean it's not yet possible to scale-up potential interventions and engage communities to evaluate long-term sustainability.

    Making sense of increasingly linked and globalized relationships will require an interdisciplinary approach to training and research, which only a handful of universities have truly embraced. The PHE community's head-start on the challenge, including years of experience working on the complexity of measuring cross-sectoral results, gives it a chance to become much more than it is today. The future of PHE could be in addressing the biggest challenges facing mankind.

    Monitoring and evaluation must continue to be a priority for programs working in the field, while research efforts identify synergies and make policy recommendations that maximize impact. Partnerships between academia, government, non-government, industry, and local communities will be needed for large-scale implementation and rapid response.

    We can no longer measure the benefits obtained for one large population without considering the impact it has on another. Interdisciplinary and cross-scale approaches need to be utilized to more thoroughly vet the interactions between human population dynamics and the environment in order to secure our future on the planet. PHE has a role to play in leading the way. doclink

    Karen Gaia says: The video and the article don't seem to be very related, but both address solutions that work.

    PHE: Mythbusting at the International Conference on Family Planning

       November 21, 2013, NewSecurityBeat   By: Roger-mark De Souza

    At the International Conference on Family Planning (ICFP) in Ethiopia, integrated population, health, and environment (PHE) programs had a strong showing. More than 16 sessions at the conference incorporated PHE themes, including panels on communicating complexity around family planning, conservation and human rights; how PHE helps accelerate the fertility transition in rural Ethiopia; and meaningful ways of linking population and family planning to climate change and sustainable development in Africa. Blue Ventures, one of PHE's strongest voices, was given one of the first ever Excellence in Leadership for Family Planning awards.

    However there are still myths that persist regarding the PHE approach and the PHE community should not forget them and should continue to combat these misconceptions.

    Myth 1 is that PHE is simplistic and Malthusian. In reality PHE is rights-based, community-driven, and embraces complexity.

    PHE focuses on voluntary family planning and preserving individuals' right to choose the number and spacing of their children; responding to community needs and priorities as identified by the community itself; and taking into account the complexity of on-the-ground realities.

    Myth 2 is that PHE Is difficult, if not impossible, to implement in some places. In reality PHE integration is possible, and the energy and commitment needed to meet challenges are fully evident.

    Blue Ventures reported that by working across sectors, its project has empowered women, supported active engagement in natural resource management, and greatly improved access to family planning. In six years, the contraceptive prevalence rate in the project's remote areas of Madagascar has increased more than 500%, from 10% in 2007 to 55% in 2013.

    A third myth is that PHE isn't really taking root. PHE projects implemented by Path Foundation Philippines, Inc., the Guraghe People's Self-Help Development Organization, and Blue Ventures are achieving important results in countries of high significance - Madagascar, the Philippines, and Ethiopia. More organizations like FHI360 and Conservation Through Public Health are examining these issues and seeing value in adjusting their own programming as a result. Some, such as the Jane Goodall Institute, Population Action International, and the Population Reference Bureau have adopted PHE as one of their signature approaches. And regional partners like the Lake Victoria Basin Commission are contributing too. PHE is clearly getting a good start. A very young field, with limited funding, it is achieving excellent results at the level and scale at which it is being implemented.

    There are three critical questions to be answered that will help address concerns:

    1.What is the collective impact of PHE? The PHE field needs to continue documenting the collective impact of their work in order to demonstrate its aggregated impact.

    2.Where is PHE not taking root and why not? For places where the PHE approach would make sense but is not being considered, do we know why?

    3.What is the intentionality of PHE? Should PHE be reshaped according to each program's focus? Does the community need to move beyond the label to get at the heart of meaningful integrated and transformational development programming?

    There is a great deal of evidence that PHE is reaping benefits for many rural and under-served communities around the world. Let's make sure everyone knows it. doclink

    Population-Environment Program Wins Recognition: Blue Ventures Honored at International Conference on Family Planning

       November 14, 2013, NewSecurityBeat



    London-based NGO Blue Ventures was presented with an Excellence in Leadership for Family Planning (EXCELL) award by the Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health for their work integrating community-based reproductive health education and services into their marine conservation and coastal livelihood initiatives in Madagascar.

    "Blue Ventures demonstrates how environment agencies working in highly diverse areas can address reproductive health needs within a rights-based framework," said José Rimon, deputy director of the Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health, in presenting the award.

    "We are all so grateful for this recognition that integration of voluntary family planning services into community-based conservation, food security, and other environmental programs provides an effective way to reach some of the world's most remote and under-served communities with the reproductive health services they need," said Blue Ventures' Caroline Savitzky at the conference hall in Addis Ababa.

    Recognition at this scale is a major boon for the population, health, and environment (PHE) community, which supports similar integrated environment and health programming in biodiversity hotspots and rural areas around the world. doclink

    PHE - Putting Women and Reproductive Health at the Core of Global Development

       October 21, 2013, Impatient Optimists   By: Vicky Markham

    An integrated "un-siloed" approach where population, health and environment (PHE) intersect can help solve key international development issues. And the UN's Post 2015 Agenda is the perfect opportunity to affect a broad set of development policies.

    At the Women Delivering Development meeting, organized by the Woodrow Wilson Center, Aspen Institute, Sierra Club and Center for Environment and Population (CEP), a diverse group of influential leaders agreed: put women and reproductive health at the core of development where it belongs. In women's everyday lives on the ground, around the world, these components are very much integrated. The meeting was an effort to work towards development policies and advocacy that reflect that reality.

    The Woodrow Wilson Center's (WWC) compelling new short film, Healthy People, Healthy Environment, grounded us in the issues from the village perspective - first hand voices from three Tanzanian village women who relayed how climatic change, energy, food or water challenges play out in their everyday lives. They represented the on-the-ground, real life embodiment of our global policies and advocacy work; the reality behind funds allocated, negotiations deliberated, and policies on paper.

    Empowering women has a ripple effect, enabling families to be healthier and achieving a balance between people and the air, land, water we depend on to sustain a good quality of life.

    Within the climate change debate, insufficient attention has been given to RH as simple, inexpensive way to meet the unmet need for family planning while at the same time significantly reducing CO2 emissions.

    Field programs on tree conservation in Africa were better received by villagers when their reproductive health and education issues were on the table, too.

    The FP2020 process is providing new visibility and excitement around the UN's Post 2015 Agenda, as well as being a new ally in promoting RH and sustainable development linkages, in shaping the way forward post-MDGs.

    The momentum of this meeting is also continued with two major international PHE meetings held this week in Ethiopia. doclink

    Coastal Resource Management, Family Planning Integration Build Resilience in Madagascar and The Gambia

       August 26, 2013, NewSecurityBeat

    The awareness of the connected challenges of natural resource management, economic growth, and human health has encouraged more integrated models of international development. The TRY Oyster Women's Association, based in The Gambia, and Blue Ventures, based in Madagascar are examples of a successful community-based approach to building resilience, enabling communities to bounce back from adversity and establish a long-term basis for development.

    Since its foundation in 2007, TRY's exclusively female membership has grown to include women from 15 villages in the Greater Banjul area of The Gambia. TRY members oversee the Tanbi Wetlands National Park, a critical 6,300-hectare wetlands area at the mouth of the Gambia River, which is a vital habitat for oysters - many of the local women's primary source of income. This represents the "the first time in Africa" that women have been given exclusive ownership of such an important national resource, said Executive Director Fatou Janha. Organization members restrict the harvest of oysters to four months a year, allowing oysters to grow larger over an extended closed season and bringing harvesters 30% higher market prices. Further, TRY members have begun a mangrove replanting campaign to increase the sustainability of the fishery.

    TRY's members also face significant health challenges. Only 18% of women use contraceptives in The Gambia, and the TFR is 5.79 children per women. Marine resource management can only go so far towards improving the lives of TRY's 500 female members.

    "We talk about the sustainable stewardship of the environment...but we can't afford to have this if we don't have healthy people, so that was how we tried to integrate health into our program," Janha said.

    TRY offered family planning, maternal, and reproductive health programs very soon after starting its resource management initiatives. Now more than 80% of TRY members have attended clinic appointments for health screenings. TRY also established a microfinance program in 2010, which has been an "unmitigated success," with only 2 of 256 women defaulting on their loans, according to a report by the UNDP Equator Initiative.

    Blue Ventures, operating in Southwestern Madagascar, was originally a marine conservation and ecotourism outfit, but after finding that short-term closures of octopus stocks - the local cash crop - could allow diminished fisheries to replenish, they began to work increasingly with communities to implement sustainable models of fishing. "Blue Ventures...now manages the largest network of locally managed marine areas in the Indian Ocean, all designed to enable communities to live and manage their marine resources in a sustainable way," said Dr. Vik Mohan.

    Blue Ventures also found a large unmet need for health care, health education, and family planning. Mmost girls were having a child before their 16th birthday, and 1 in 20 women died during pregnancy or childbirth while high fertility rates threatened to undermine Blue Venture's efforts to increase fishery sustainability.

    "Fishermen were working harder and harder to catch fish to provide for their growing families...catching smaller and smaller fish," Mohan explained. "Despite our best efforts, this was not a sustainable model."

    In 2009, they began offering free family planning services and post-natal care, including contraceptives and infant immunizations. On the first day they opened their clinic, 20% of all women of reproductive age came asking for contraception," said Mohan. In six years Blue Ventures observed a five-fold increase in contraceptive usage and a 40% decrease in birth rates.

    Though TRY and Blue Ventures both began as marine conservation organizations, their community-based approaches positioned them to react effectively to the broader needs of the people they worked with and increase their resilience to shocks.

    "Now the community sees better than ever the link between family size, population growth, food security, and biodiversity conservation," said Mohan. "It means that when women come to hear about family planning, they also get to hear about fisheries. It means that when men come to learn about fisheries, they hear